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Flex Circuit Design for CCD Application ECEN 5004 Jon Mah.

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Presentation on theme: "Flex Circuit Design for CCD Application ECEN 5004 Jon Mah."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flex Circuit Design for CCD Application ECEN 5004 Jon Mah

2 Topics System Description CCD Background Flex Circuit Design Constraints/Issues Thermal Analysis Signal integrity based on transmission line reflections Optimized Design Conclusions

3 System Description Actively cooled CCD using Thermoelectric Cooler Operating Temperature of -100°C ± 0.1°C Serial Clock Speed of 1MHz CCD size is 4096 X 4096pixels 4 flex circuits Hermetic, evacuated housing (not pictured) Concentrate on Base assembly (neglecting external preamps, etc.)

4 Aside: CCD Background Starts with exposing the CCD to light. Charge builds in potential wells via the photoelectric effect Step 1: V1=on, V2=off, V3=off

5 Moving Charge Using Clock Signals Step 2: V1=on, V2=on, V3=offStep 3: V1=off, V2=on, V3=off Step 4: V1=off, V2=on, V3=on Step 5: V1=off, V2=off, V3=on

6 Typical 4-Serial Readout For 4096 X 4096 active area, 2048 X 2048 readout each serial register (neglect overscan) So, for each parallel shift, 2048 serial shifts 1MHz is for serial (i.e. parallel is about 0.5KHz)

7 Serial Register Readout Pixels read out 1 at a time Amplifiers, Reset Gate, Last Gates on Serial Register

8 CCD/Chip Carrier Specifications ParameterValue Spectral Wavelength Range nm Wafer Thickness500μm Pixel size15μm X 15μm Active Area37.75cm 2 Total CCD Area42.25cm 2 Area for Bond Pads4.5cm 2 Chip Carrier Area45.56cm 2 Split into 2 Si CCDs (2048 X 4096) Ceramic Chip Carrier 3 single parallel clock lines per flex circuit (12 lines) 3 single serial clock lines per flex circuit (12 lines) Last gate, reset gate and sum well per flex circuit (12 lines) 8 input/output bias lines per CCD (16 lines) 2 shields and 2 ground lines per flex circuit (16 lines) Total of 68 signal lines 17 signal lines per flex circuit

9 CCD/Chip Carrier Marconi Applied Technologies (Secrets of Marconi CCDs June 16-22, 2002)

10 Flex Circuits Deposited then etched metal on flexible (polyimide or polyester) substrate Three basic elements:  Base film  Adhesive  Conductor Microstrip transmission line Assume 12cm long Serial clocks, last gate, reset gate and sum well run at 1MHz and Parallel clocks run at 0.5KHz

11 Dielectric Films - Polyimide Material Properties  CTE  Thermal conductivity (k = 0.33W/mK)  Relative Dielectric constant (ε r = 4.0) For an isothermal CCD we want:  Matched CTE with the Adhesive and conductor (prevent delamination or cracking between interfaces)  Low thermal conductivity (maintain thermal isolation of CCD)  Low electrical conductivity (Substrate ground plane unaffected by fluctuations in the chassis)

12 Adhesive Material Properties  CTE  Dielectric constant  Thermal conductivity (k = 0.23W/mK) For isothermal CCD design, we want:  Again, matched CTE with conductors and dielectric film  Low dielectric constant to minimize capacitance  Low thermal conductivity to maintain isothermal CCD

13 Conductors - Copper Material properties  CTE  Good Electrical conductivity  Thermal conductivity (390W/mK) For isothermal CCD design, we want:  Again, matched CTE to adhesive and base/cover films  Good electrical conductivity for lower inductance  Low thermal conductivity to maintain isothermal CCD

14 Design Considerations Wire bonds from flex circuit bond pads to CCD bond pads are limited to 25μm diameter gold wire with lengths of about 3mm (neglect for this analysis) CCD carrier has some thermal resistance (neglect for this analysis) Neglect convective heating/cooling effects Geometry limits size of striplines to 2μm thickness Radiative heating is ~40mW Neglect heat generated in flex circuit due to power dissipation.

15 Thermal Performance of Stripline TEC can handle up to 0.20W to maintain -100°C operating temperature What are the heat loads from the CCD to the flex circuit  Dynamic  Conduction Assume that the housing is evacuated (i.e. no convection) Assume a fixed radiative heat load of 40mW 100˚C delta across flex (baseplate to CCD) Fixed adhesive thickness = 0.1μm

16 Thermoelectric Coolers 4-stage TEC Assume that all the heat is removed from the baseplate Capable of rejecting 0.2W with ΔT = 100˚C Marlow MI4012T Marlow Industries Inc.

17 Dynamic Heat Load Most of the heat dissipated on the chip is due to the output amplifier for each serial register Typical value is about 25mW per amplifier, or 100mW total

18 Thermal Conduction of Flex Circuits Fourier Equation Where k = Thermal Conductivity = 0.33W/mK for polyimide, 0.23W/mK for adhesive, and 390W/mK for Cu A = cross-sectional area = width x thickness ΔT = change in temp across flex circuit = 100K Δx = distance of flex circuit = 12cm

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20 Total Allowable Heat 100mW from dynamic loads This leaves 100mW for conduction and radiative heat loads  Assume 15mW per flex circuit  This limits the width of the conductors to about 450μm

21 Stripline Transmission Line Calculations Want to match characteristic impedance to the Load 10Vp-p clock rails Function of conductor width

22 Characteristic Impedance for a Microstrip Transmission Line Z 0 for a Microstrip w = width of conductor d = height of polyimide ε r = dielectric of polyimide Ramo, S., Whinnery, J., VanDuzer, T. Fields and Waves in Communications Electronics

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24 Reflections Reflection coefficient is dependent on the load and characteristic impedances Changes drastically with conductor width How can we change the load resistance?

25 Sheet Resistance for Impedance Matching (Geometry)

26 Sheet Resistance for Impedance Matching (Doping concentration) Red – n-type Blue – p-type

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28 Sine wave integrity Reflection coefficient affects the signal integrity Design:  10Vp-p sine wave  load impedance of 10Ω How dependent is the signal to the conductor width?  Tolerance on fabrication of the conductor width is ~10%

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30 Design Considerations Conductor width must be less than 450μm Parallel and Serial clocks need to have different load impedances since they have different frequencies  Minimize sensitivity to reflections by moving the ρ = 0 point higher and to right of the reflection coefficient curve  This can be performed by changing doping and distances between bond pads

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33 Summary The thermal design constrains the largest conductor width Impedance matching can be obtained by varying the doping concentration as well as distances of signals to grounds on the CCD The optimal design for reflection is to have the largest width, which then has the highest tolerance to fabrication errors Coupling, as well as other effects (reflections due to flex circuits to bond pads to wire bonds to bond pads on the CCD) were neglected in the analysis


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