# SADC Course in Statistics Handling Data Module B2.

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SADC Course in Statistics Handling Data Module B2

Synopsis of Module Overview –what happens to data once collected Organised for the analysis tables and graphs are produced reports are produced Principles –effective use of a spreadsheet for statistical work –exploratory data analysis –good graphs and tables Electronic statistics book –CAST for SADC

Objectives –See the Module B2 handout –And individual sessions They are on: –Management of data –Statistical techniques –Reporting results –IT techniques

Pre-requisites - computing Assume some IT skills –Windows –Simple use of a spreadsheet (Excel) –Simple use of a word processor (Word) –Ideally use of presentation software (Powerpoint) –E-mail plus some experience of the Internet If you are a relative beginner –Windows and Excel are the most important –Can be done in parallel with this unit Otherwise –Difficult to concentrate on statistics You get side-tracked by the need for computer skills

Pre-requisites - statistics Module B1 –provides an overview of (Official) statistics –introduces a range of case studies –describes ways of collecting data If you have not done B1 –or have forgotten the ideas –read the outline of the module –case studies will be introduced in this module

Contents of this Module Session 1 2 3 4 to 8 9 to 11 12 & 13 14 15 16 & 17 18 to 20 Contents From data to the report CAST – an electronic statistics textbook Statistical concepts Producing and presenting good tables and graphs Good use of a spreadsheet for statistics Exploring data before analysis Objectives are the key! Analysing numeric variables An analysis in practice Reporting

Session 1:From the data to the report Three case studies Small –Data on climatic change in Zambia Medium –Data on cropping area in Swaziland Large –Data on agriculture in Tanzania To illustrate the steps

Learning objectives Explain the steps in a study –once the data are available Appreciate the role of data analysis –in the cycle Make initial suggestions –for improvements in the process –for timely, high-quality results and reports

Zambia study Introduced in Module B1 – Session 8 Farmers are migrating from Southern Zambia –citing climate change as the reason –they can no longer grow the crops as before A local NGO believes instead –acknowledge climate change in general, but believe what is needed is improved farming practices wherever farmers locate They question the evidence –for climate change in the pattern of rainfall as it affects farming strategy

Exercise on Zambia data Follow the demonstration: "Zambia Rainfall –Of the work on the data for Moorings –A station with a long record –Of daily rainfall data Consider the steps that were needed And what could be done better in the future

Swaziland study Introduced in Module B1 Session 05 Annual survey of cropping areas and yields Here we look at the data on cropping area –of maize Once they are collected then: –How are they computerised? –Checked? –Analysed? –Used?

Exercise on Swaziland study Follow the demonstration: Swaziland Crop Survey (You may print the relevant PowerPoint Slides to follow along with) –Of the work on the data from the paper records by 75 enumerators –to be computerised –analysed –sent to the National Met Service for them to use Consider the steps that were needed And what could be done better in the future

Tanzania survey A huge survey of agriculture in Tanzania Involving about 1800 enumerators And a main questionnaire of 22 pages Given to 3223 households A technical report –Describes the process of data entry –And checking –Then there is the analysis –And reporting

Excersise on Tanzania study Read the document from the technical report: Tanzania Agricultural Survey Chapter 8 Consider the the steps in the data processing. What could be done better in future?

Review activity What is in common? –In the steps that are taken What is different? On improvements –what suggestions were made? –what can you suggest? Complete the practical/discussion

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