3 OverviewSo far in this training programme we have only studied the handling of data, and report writing.Key concepts of statistics, e.g.Good tables and graphs – using ExcelData management e.g.Data entry and validation – using Epi-infoSome analysis methods e.g. InstatIt is now time to study aspects of collecting data(see next slide).
4 Manual checking, editing etc. Data management cycleDesignquestionnaireEnumerators collectdata in the fieldDesignsurveyManual checking, editing etc.ConceptionReporting of resultsData enteredonto computerHave covered some data analysis- more to come in Module 4DataanalysisComputer data management
5 Manual checking, editing etc. Data management cycleModule3DesignquestionnaireEnumerators collectdata in the fieldDesignsurveyManual checking, editing etc.ConceptionReporting of resultsData enteredonto computerDataanalysisModule4Computer data management
6 Module content Types of study Types of data Tables to address objectivesQuestionnaire designPractical aspect of sampling surveysSampling techniquessimple random sampling, stratified sampling, etc.Integrating qualitative and quantitative approaches
7 Duration and timetable MorningAfternoonDay 1Data collection and the research processTable designDay 2Questionnaire designIntroduction to sampling techniques:Day 3Simple random samplingStratified samplingDay 4Systematic samplingCluster samplingDay 5Multistage samplingIntegrating qualitative research into quantitative researchDay 6Wrap up
8 Module Learning Objectives At the end of the module, participants will be able to:Design questionnaires to address survey objectives effectively; and identify questionnaires that fail to address survey objectivesExplain to others the benefits of random sampling.Describe stratified, cluster and multistage sampling.Select random samples using different sampling schemes, and advise others on how to do so.
9 Module Learning Objectives (cont.) More experienced members of the class may also be able to:explain the benefits of stratified sampling compared to simple random samplingexplain the difference between stratified sampling and cluster samplingexplain what multistage sampling is, and how it relates to other sampling methods
13 Overview (of Session)This session sets the scene for the module as a whole, and for the next three sessions in particular.It reviews types of studies, and types of data and data collection.It is laying the foundations for ensuring good data collection that will address the objectives of a research study.
14 Session Learning Objectives At the end of the session participants will be able to:Describe a range of different data collection activities.Explain the difference between primary and secondary data and their roles in the research process.Recount the methods and tools that are used in collecting different types of data.
15 IntroductionWithin statistical offices and other departments, research studies are carried out to answer questions and inform policy.Most of these studies are observational studies.(i.e. researcher does not change the environment that is being studied, but observes and measures characteristics of interest with the aim of understanding the phenomenon under study.)Sometimes they are desk studies using secondary data to draw conclusions.
16 Types of study Examples of observational studies are: Census, sample survey, monitoringThese are all formally designed with structured questionnaires.Sample surveys are commonly carried out observational studies.
17 Types of study Less structured examples are: Qualitative interviewing, focus groups, etc.Instruments for collecting data include:semi-structured questionnaires to ad-hoc conversationsdiagramsranking methodsmapping techniquesetc.
18 Data sourcesPrimary data are data that you, or your team, collect to meet specific objectivesData collected in a sample survey is primary data.Sometimes called raw data or micro-dataYou know its quality (checking, entering, managing, etc. all done by you.)Secondary data are collected by others for other purposes.Sometimes only available in summary form.
19 Getting it right!Important that the study conveys correct message to the policy makers.This means that for surveys, for example, the study needs to be well designed:needs well designed instruments asking the right questions and collecting all the relevant data.needs to ensure that the sample studied is representative of the population of interest.(more of this later in the module).
20 Types of surveys Cross-sectional studies Longitudinal studies involve observation of some subset of a population of items all at the same time.Cross-sectional studies are used in most branches of science, social sciences and elsewhere.Longitudinal studiesinvolves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time, often many decades.They allow researchers to distinguish short from long-term phenomena, such as poverty.
21 Types of surveys (cont.) Panel studiesis a longitudinal study where a cross-sectional sample of units is selected and surveyed at usually regular intervals. The observation units may be individuals, households, organisations, etc.Cohort studiesis a form of longitudinal study. They sample a cohort, defined as a group experiencing some event (typically birth) in a selected time period, and studying them at intervals through time.
22 Uganda Examples: Sample Survey The 2002/2003 UNHS2 survey:approx.50,000 individuals9700 households970 communitiesis an example of a cross-sectional survey.UBOS designed sampling scheme, designed questionnaire etc.
25 Types of data Quantitative Yield per hectare (numeric) Time to travel to primary school (numeric)Number of bundles of straw (0,1,2,….)Traditional cash crops(1=coffee, 2=cotton, 3=tea,….) (categorical)Ownership of car (yes / no) (binary)
26 Types of data Qualitative results of focus group discussion additional commentsreasons …etc.Can still be classified (coded) into categories.
27 Activity - Primary and secondary data Read Chapter 4.1 (Using Secondary Data) of the Green Book.In groups, discuss what secondary data is, where it can be used in the research process, and advantages and disadvantages.Report back.
28 Discussion – studies and methods and instruments Working in small groups.Find out what types of study others have been involved in, and what methods and instruments they have used - with examples.Discuss pros and cons of different studies and different methods and instruments.Report back and group discussion.