2Manual checking, editing etc. Data management cycleDesignquestionnaireEnumerators collectdata in the fieldDesignsurveyManual checking, editing etc.ConceptionReporting of resultsWe are now finishing off the data analysis and are ready to write it up.Data enteredonto computerDataanalysisComputer data management
3Session objectivesAt the end of these sessions, participants will have:Acquired report writing skillsBe able to differentiate between different types of reportsBe able to list the characteristics of a good report and the steps to be followed to write a good reportAppreciate the different report structures and agree on a standard structureConsolidated their data interpretation skills
4Presentation Outline Introduction Definition Types of Reports Steps to Follow for a Good and Effective ReportStructure of a ReportConclusionPractical Exercise
5IntroductionThis presentation is intended to equip you with the basic skills of communicating information to others without necessarily the need for meetings.Effective reports give a professional image and get others to take your work seriously
6DefinitionA report is a prepared account of what happened, about a particular event, presented in formal and organized format backed with statistical evidence.It may be a single report or a series of them.
7Types of Reports Academic Report: Academic reports are usually detailed and in most cases targeting academicians. They are of high content and the producer and the reader are at the same level or a little different.
8Types of Reports continued Professional Report:Professional reports are for informing and persuading people as well as initiating changeThey may be detailed depending on the targeted audience/taste of the sponsor.In most cases they have a mixed audience of those who may understand the in-depth of the subject content and non technical people like the decision-makers.
9The following comments have been made by senior managers Good ReportThe following comments have been made by senior managersabout what they look for in a good report.Assess the comments and evaluate them
10Good Report ContinuedA report must meet the needs of the readers and answer the questions in their mindsA report must be at the right level for the readers. Some readers have an in-depth knowledge of the subject while others may be decision-makers without specialized, technical knowledge
11Good Report ContinuedA report must have a clear, logical structure-with clear signposting to show where the ideas are leadingA report must give a good first impression.Presentation is very important
12Good Report continued..A report must not make assumptions about the readers’ understanding.All writers need toapply the ‘so what’ testexplain why something is a good ideaReports must be written in good Englishusing short sentences with correct grammar and spellingReports should have a time reference
13Activity 2 – review of data analysis Work in groups of 3 or 4In Session 6 you used Epi Info to analyse the dataAnd copy retults to a Word fileChoose a subject area for your reportReview these analyses and add further tables and graphs if neededDo not do too many – concentrate on quality not quantityFor example 2 tables and two graphs may be sufficient
14Steps to Follow for a Good and Effective Report Define your aimCollect your ideasSelect the material and decide how to show the significance of your factsStructure your ideasStart on report writing
15Example of structured ideas on Health 4.1 IntroductionHousehold Health Status4.3 Availability and Access to Health Services 274.4 Health Services Utilization… 29Under Five ImmunizationBirth-related Services4.5 Quality of Government Health Services 33Payment for ServicesService Improvement
16General Structure of the Report TitleIntroductionMain BodyConclusion and RecommendationsAppendices
17Report Editing 1. The purpose A checklist to use while editing a reportlooks at 7 areas.1. The purposeHave you clarified your purpose?Have you identified your readers' needs and characteristics?
18Report Editing continued 2. InformationHave you included the main points?Are these points supported by evidence?Is the information relevant to the purpose?
19Report Editing continued 3. AccuracyAre there spelling mistakes?Do the figures add up?Are the references correct, in the text and at the end?Are all sources of information listed in the References section?Are abbreviations consistent?
20Report Editing continued 4. ImagesAre images clear?5. FormatIs the report easy to follow?Are headings and numbering clear?Are the arguments followed through?Is it logical/easy to follow?Is the font and style consistent for the different levels, body, tables and graphics?
21Report Editing continued 6. LanguageIs it clear, direct, easy to read?Will the readers understand it?Will its tone help you achieve the purpose?Can unnecessary words/phrases be deleted?Is the grammar/punctuation correct?Is there any repetition?
22Report Editing Continued 7. PresentationIs the layout appealing?Does it highlight important points?
23Activity 4: Writing the report Work in groups againDivide the sections in the report between group membersWrite your section(s) of the reportCombine these sections to form your (group) report
24Activity 5 – the handout on report writing Read the handout on report writingIn particular read:Page 2 – what makes a good reportPages 11 and 12 – editing checklist
25Activity 6: Presentations and discussion Each group presents their (Word) reportIt may be printedOr projectedGroups (or individuals) make notes of each presentationUsing the handout as a referenceThey comment on good pointsAnd points that can be improvedIn each case relating the point made to a recommendation in the handout.