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Slide 12.1 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 12.1 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 12.1 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Chapter 12 Analysing quantitative data

2 Slide 12.2 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Quantative data analysis (1) Key points Data must be analysed to produce information Computer software analysis is normally used for this process Data should be carefully prepared for analysis Researchers need to know how to select and use different charting and statistical techniques

3 Slide 12.3 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Quantative data analysis (2) Main concerns Preparing, inputting and checking data Choosing the most appropriate statistics to describe the data Choosing the most appropriate statistics to examine data relationships and trends

4 Slide 12.4 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Preparing, inputting and checking data (1) Main considerations Type of data (scale of measurement) Data format for input to analysis software Impact of data coding on subsequent analyses Case weighting Methods for error checking

5 Slide 12.5 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Preparing, inputting and checking data (2) Defining the data type Saunders et al. (2009) Figure 12.1 Defining the data type

6 Slide 12.6 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Preparing, inputting and checking data (3) Defining the data type Saunders et al. (2009) Figure 12.1 Defining the data type (Continued)

7 Slide 12.7 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Preparing, inputting and checking data (4) A simple data matrix Saunders et al. (2009) Table 12.1 A simple data matrix

8 Slide 12.8 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Preparing, inputting and checking data (5) Main data categories for coding Numerical data Categorical data Missing data

9 Slide 12.9 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Preparing, inputting and checking data (6) Final stages of the process Entering data – rubbish in = rubbish out! Weighting cases Always take time to check for errors – including illegitimate codes, illogical relationships and that rules were followed in filter questions

10 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Exploring and presenting data (1) Exploratory analysis can include: Specific values Highest and lowest values Trends over time Proportions Distributions Sparrow (1989)

11 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Exploring and presenting data (2) Checklist Box 12.8 Complete the Checklist in Box 12.8 to help you design diagrams and tables Saunders et al. (2009)

12 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Exploring and presenting data (3) Showing aspects of individual variables Specific values Highest and lowest values Trends Proportions Distribution of values

13 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Examples of diagrams (1) Bar Chart Source: adapted from Eurostat (2007) © European Communities, 2007 Reproduced with permission Figure 12.2 Bar chart

14 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Examples of diagrams (2) Histogram Saunders et al. (2009) Figure 12.4 Histogram

15 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Examples of diagrams (5) Pie chart Saunders et al. (2009) Figure 12.8 Pie chart

16 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Exploring and presenting data (4) Comparing variables to show Specific values and independence Highest and lowest values Proportions Trends and conjunctions

17 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Exploring and presenting data (5) Comparing variables to show Totals Proportions and totals Distribution of values Relationship between cases for variables

18 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Describing data using statistics (1) Statistics to describe a variable focus on two aspects The central tendency The dispersion

19 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Describing data using statistics (2) Describing the central tendency To represent the value occurring most frequently To represent the middle value To include all data values

20 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Describing data using statistics (3) Describing the dispersion To state the difference between values To describe and compare the extent by which values differ from the mean

21 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Examining relationships, differences and trends Using statistics to Test for significant relationships and differences Assess the strength of relationship Examine trends

22 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Summary: Chapter 12 Data for quantitative analysis can be collected and then coded at different scales of measurement Data type constrains the presentation, summary and analysis techniques that can be used Data are entered for computer analysis as a matrix and recorded using numerical codes Codes should be entered for all data values Existing coding schemes enable comparisons

23 Slide Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Summary: Chapter 12 Data must be checked for errors Initial analysis should use both tables and diagrams Subsequent analyses involve describing data and exploring relationships by using statistics Longitudinal data may necessitate different statistical techniques


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