Presentation on theme: "How does TBLT Affect the Emergence of Complexity? :Usage-based Analysis of Written Production of an EFL Learner Tomoko Tode (Niigata University of Health."— Presentation transcript:
How does TBLT Affect the Emergence of Complexity? :Usage-based Analysis of Written Production of an EFL Learner Tomoko Tode (Niigata University of Health and Welfare) firstname.lastname@example.org Hideki Sakai (Shinshu University)
This Study… the purpose = to explore how a task-based language teaching (TBLT) affects interlanguage development a case study of one learner receiving TBLT Time-series analysis was conducted in the framework of a usage-based theory of second language acquisition
A Usage-based Model of Language (Langacker, 2000) Grammar = a network of exemplars and their schemas that emerge from actual usage Transfer V NP NP send NP NP give NP NP send me a package send you an e-mail give her a lift Emphasize the importance of semantics No clear boundary between lexicon and grammar
Childrens early language is item-based Verb-Island Hypothesis (Tomasello, 1992) –__ kick __. Brush ___. … the best predictor of this childs use of a given verb on a given day was not her use of other verbs on the same day, but rather her use of that same verb on immediately preceding days. (Tomasello, 2003, pp. 117-118)
Children produce novel utterances by usage-based syntactic operations a longitudinal case study of a child (Lieven et al. 2003) –Data was collected five days per week for six weeks. –The childs creative utterance was based on previously learned item-based constructions, on which small modifications were made via usage-based syntactic operations. I want a __. I have some toast. I want a paper. I want a knife. I want a toast.
Abstraction occurs gradually through frequent experience input Wheres the W? Wheres your W? Where are they? This is my cup. (exemplars and low-level schema) output Wheres my cup? The network is gradually complexified through frequent experience of exemplars.
L2 acquisition is basically usage-based. L2 knowledge of beginning or false- beginning EFL learners is item-based. (Tode, 2003; Tode, submitted for publication) item-based constructions schematization (e.g., Mellow, 2006; Zyzik, 2006)
However… various factors specific to L2 acquisition (e.g., cognitive development; L1 transfer; explicit instruction) Complexity Theory: need for in-depth longitudinal case studies (De Bot et al. 2007; Larsen-Freeman, 2006; Larsen- Freeman & Cameron, 2008)
Underlying Principles TBLT (Willis & Willis, 2007) Usage-based theory Language is learned through use. Grammar emerges from actual usage. Start with meaning Focus on language Emphasis on semantics and form-meaning connections Early communication is primarily lexical. Early language is based on item-based constructions.
The Language Use Cycle of EFL Learners Receiving TBLT FFI Explicit knowledge Input Item-based constructions (a network of exemplars and low- level schemas) Output FFI
Research Questions 1.How does the participant produce novel language during the period of the TBLT? 2.How does the TBLT affect the interlanguage development of the participant?
the Participant Taro a freshman majoring in speech, language and hearing sciences taking a required EFL class for freshmen of a university English proficiency: false-beginning level He volunteered to participate in the data collection of this study.
the EFL class Taro took 90-minute class; once a week (14 meetings) Instruction period: October 1, 2008 – January 7, 2009 the teacher = the first researcher of the study The teacher designed tasks based on the coursebook, which is not task-based by itself. Coursebook used: a collection of reading material on the topic of health & social welfare issues
Syllabus topic disability sports child abusecare plan task writing a script to present the history and roles of Paralympics taking an interview exam to be admitted to a child-welfare department of a university assessing a care plan and writing a report on it hours4.5 hours6.5 hours4.5 hours
the Cycle of Pretask-Task-FFI: the case of the unit of disability sports Pretask 1Reading a passage about Paralympics Pretask 2Mini-lectures (A & B) on different aspects of Paralympics - Half of students attend Lecture A - The other half attend Lecture B Students who have attended different lectures make groups of four and convey what they have heard to each other. TaskWriting a script for a presentation titled the history and the roles of Paralympics. FFIFeedback to the whole class and each group by the teacher Modifying the scripts based on the feedback Reproducing
Data Collection Main data: English essays –Written in the first researchers office on an individual basis –5 times during the study period (twice per month) –Under the same title My Role as a QOL Supporter –Without consulting anything Subordinate data: Stimulated recall responses, collected immediately after writing the essay Instructional data: instructional log, teaching material, written production the participant made in the classroom etc.
RQ1:How does Taro produce novel language? Analyses and Results
Method of Analysis Sources of novel language in each essay except the first essay were identified. –similar expressions or subschema in previous essays (previous essays, SR) –pedagogical intervention that seems to have affected the novel language (instructional data, SR) –explicit knowledge learned in middle or high school (SR)
Previous essays 1 st : So, I study hard every day. 2 nd : Im studying every day in Niigata University of Healthy because I want to ST in the future. 1st : ST is speech, language and hearing Therapy. ST is very important. Subschema: ST is __. 2 nd : ST is never give up heart. 4 th : Now, I think that I wish I had spoken with him. 5 th : I like speaking with my friends.
TBLT example of enable and encourage Input from the text: Theyre about enabling and encouraging disabled people to take part in sport…. + FFI: encourage (a person) to do 2 nd essay: Im enable and encouraging him/her to speech and hear.
TBLT example of communicate Production by Taro & his partner : Therefore, he cant communication …. Teachers written feedback: communication is a noun. The verb is communicate. Reproduction: Therefore, he couldnt communicate…. 5 th essay: I cant speak and communicate with patient well.
Previous essay + TBLT example of that Clause 2 nd essay: Im interesting aphasia… that disabled people cant do communication well. Input from text: The abuse should be reported…so that proper measures can be taken to help and protect the victim. Input from text: The local health department requests …so that the burden on his wife may be reduced. 4 th essay: Im challenge that I dont repeat mistake. (meaning Ill challenge so that I will not repeat making mistakes.)
Explicit knowledge 5th essay: I like speaking with my friends. (SR: First I wrote I like speak…. Then I modified it into I like speaking, because I knew that two verbs cannot be used together.)
Summary of the Results Taro created utterances based mainly on expressions produced in previous essays. He also actively made use of exemplars or slot-and-frame patterns experienced in the TBLT (e.g., encourage [a person] to do). Explicit knowledge learned in middle and high schools was also drawn on, but not so often.
RQ2: How does the TBLT affect Taros interlanguage development? Analyses and Results
Methods of Analyses a)To examine how accuracy and complexity changed b)To examine how the same meaning is expressed before and after relevant TBLT intervention c)To examine how the same meaning is expressed in more than 1 essay without any relevant TBLT intervention
a)Definitions of Accuracy and Complexity Accuracy score –Proportion of accurate clauses to the total number of clauses plus independent sub-clausal unit –accurate in terms of word order, verb argument structures, the usage of conjunctions, etc. Complexity score –average number of clauses per AS-unit
a) Results Change in accuracyChange in complexity
Analysis b) to be a speech therapist inaccurateOutput, FFI, Reproduce accurate relative clause Input, Output, FFI inaccurateInput, Output accurate Because __. __ because __ simple, complexOutput, FFI, Reproduce complex Communication as a verb communicate inaccurateOutput, FFI, Reproduce accurate inaccurate The most important is… Input inaccurateOutput, FFI inaccurateInput FFI inaccurate
Example) to be a speech therapist 1 st essay: My dream is ST. 2 nd essay: I want to ST in the future. Output (in class, not in the elicitation writing task) : I want to be child welfare facility. FFI: I want to work for child welfare facility. + My dream is to be child welfare specialist in the future. Reproduce: I want to work for child welfare facility. 3 rd essay: My dream is to be ST in the future. 4 th essay: I want to be ST in the future. 5 th essay: I will be ST in the future.
Analysis c) I study accurate inaccurate accurate inaccurate inaccurate ST is … accurate inaccurate, accurate accurate accurate, inaccurate I am interested in … inaccurate inaccurate
Example) I study… 1 st essay: I study hard every day. 2 nd essay: Im studying every day in Niigata University of Healthy. 3 rd essay: I study hard every day in Niigata University of Health. 4 th essay: I studying hard in Niigata University of Health. 5 th essay: Im studying hard every day.
Summary of the Results A trade-off between accuracy and complexity development was observed. –At first, very complex, but not accurate –Later, more and more accurate In some cases, experience in the TBLT contributed to Taros improvement in accuracy, but, in other cases, did not. There was no evidence that accuracy improved without pedagogical intervention.
Answer to RQ1 Taro produces new language, based on exemplars or subscema, which drive from his previous experience consisting essay- writing and TBLT. = use of usage-based syntactic operations He also draws on explicit knowledge.
Answer to RQ 2 TBLT has impact on Taros interlanguage development. TBLT complex but inaccurate more accurate TBLT consisting of input, output and FFI may have contributed to his accuracy improvement. The way TBLT affects the development seems to be a complex process. –Sometimes it has an effect, but at other times, no change at all. Performance waxes and wanes.
Limitations It is not clear what aspects (reading activities [input], production activities [output], FFI) of the TBLT have contributed to his development in what ways. Repetition of essay writing as a data collection method may have motivated Taro to pay more focused attention to classroom input than usual.
References De Bot, K., Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M. (2007). A dynamic system theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10. 7-21. Langacker, R. W. (2000). A dynamic usage-based model. In M. Barlow & S. Kemmer (Eds.), Usage-based models of language (pp. 1-63). Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2006). The emergence of complexity, fluency, and accuracy in the oral and written production of five Chinese learners of English. Applied Linguistics, 27, 590-619. Larsen-Freeman, D. & Cameron, L. (2008). Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lieven, E., Behrens, H., Speares, J., & Tomasello, M. (2003). Early syntactic creativity: a usage-based approach. Journal of Child Language, 30. 333-370. Mellow, J. D. (2006). The emergence of second language syntax: A case study of the acquisition of relative clauses. Applied Linguistics, 27. 645-670. Tode, T. (2003). From unanalyzed chunks to rules: The learning of the English copula be by beginning Japanese learners of English. IRAL, 41, 23-53. Tode, T. (submitted for publication). Schematization and sentence processing by classroom foreign language learners: A reading-time experiment and a stimulated-recall analysis.
Tomasello, M. (1992). First verbs: A case study of early grammatical development. New York: Cambridge University Press. Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. MA: Harvard University Press. Willis, D. & Willis, J. (2007). Doing task-based teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Zyzik, E. (2006). Transitivity alternations and sequence learning: Insights from L2 Spanish production data. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 449-485.