2RESEARCH IN CLASSROOM INTERACTION. Research on the observable aspects of classroom interaction look at three main aspects: Input, interaction, and output.Input. Input refers to the language used by the teacher.Output. Refers to the language produced by learners.Interaction. Refers to the interrelationship between input and output, with no necessary assumption of a linear cause and effect relationship between the two.
3TASK TYPES AND LEARNER PARTICIPATION The types of task in which learners engage and the number of participants in a task also affect learners participation. Studies of pair work, group work, and whole class task have found that, compared to teacher-fronted interaction with the whole class, both pair work and group work provide more opportunities for learners to initiate and control the interaction, to produce a much larger variety of speech acts and to engage in negotiation of meaning.
4LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES. Learning strategies are ‘operations employed by the learner to aid the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information, specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self directed, more effective and more transferable to new situations.
5TYPES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES Cognitive Strategies.Cognitive strategies help learners make connections between new and already known information; they facilitate the mental re- ordering of information.Mnemonic Strategies.Mnenomic strategies help learners to link a new item with something already known.Metacognitve Strategies.Metacognitive strategies help learners to manage themselves as learners and the learning process, and specific learning tasks
6Compensatory Strategies Compensatory strategies in this case help learners make up for missing knowledge when speaking or writing English, similar to the strategy of guessing from context while listening or reading compensates for a knowledge gap.AFFECTIVE STRATEGIES.Affective strategies include indentifying ones feelings[eg anxiety, confidence, anger] and becoming aware of the learning circumstances or tasks which evoke them.
7Social Strategies.Social strategies facilitate learning with others and help learners to understand the culture of the language they are learning. Examples of social strategies include asking questions for clarification or confirmation, asking for help, learning about social or cultural norms and values, and studying together outside of class.
8THE GOOD LANGUAGE LEARNER Is a willing and accurate guesser.Has a strong drive to communicate.In uninhibited and willing to make mistakes.Focuses on form by looking at patterns and using analysis techniques,Takes advantage of all practice activities.Monitors his or her own speech and that of others.Pays attention to meaning.
9INFLUENCES ON STRATEGY CHOICE. MotivationLanguage Learning EnvironmentLearning Style and Personality TypeGenderCulture or National OriginCareer OrientationAgeThe Nature of the Language Task.
10IN THE CLASSOOMAssessing Strategy Use. ESL/EFL classroom can benefit from assessment of learner strategy use.Attuning Instruction to Learners needs The more teacher knows about their learners preferred learning styles and strategy preferences, the more effectively they can match instruction to the specific needs of students.Considering formats for strategy instruction. How to carry out strategy instruction in the classroom?Conducting Strategy Instruction. Growing evidence that strategy instruction can be valuable to many students.
11REFERENCESDornyei, Z Motivational Strategies in the language Classroom. Cambridge.Dornyei, Z Teaching and Researching Motivation. Longman.Griffiths, C Language Learning Strategies. Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions. ELT Journal. 61:91-99.Chen, Y Learning to learn: The Impact of Strategy Training. ELT Journal 61:21-29.McDonough, S Learner Strategies: An Interview with Steven McDonough. ELT Journal :63-70.Wenden, A..L Learner Development in Language Learning. Applied Linguistics.23:1. p32-55.Oxford, R.L Language Learning Styles and Strategies: Concepts and Relationships. International Review of Applied Linguistics. 42:4. pOxford, R.L Employing a questionnaire to Assess the Use of Language Learning Strategies. Applied Language Learning. 7:1-2. p