Presentation on theme: "Masatoshi Sato Universidad Andrés Bello TBLT, November 19, 2011"— Presentation transcript:
1Masatoshi Sato Universidad Andrés Bello TBLT, November 19, 2011 Effects and effectiveness of TBLT and strategy training: Transforming learners into corrective feedback providersMasatoshi SatoUniversidad Andrés BelloTBLT, November 19, 2011Nice title.
2Project Overview Goals Classroom intervention Two dimensions To help adult foreign language learners use their grammatical knowledge during spontaneous production and improve their oral accuracy and fluencyClassroom interventionAimed to create collaborative interaction between learnersTaught learners how to provide corrective feedback to each otherTwo dimensionsExamination 1: Effects of the intervention on interactional patternsExamination 2: Effectiveness of the intervention on L2 developmentWhat I did to tackle these issues was to manipulate the way in which learners interact with each other in classrooms because I thought peer interaction provides contextualized practiceThese three examinations will be separately presented, each containing its literature review, methodology, result, and discussion. Then, I will synthesize these three dimensions of the study, which will be followed by some concluding statements.
3TBLT and Learner factors L2 processing and cognitive orientations (CF research)Foreign language learners tend to pay more attention to language form than second language learners do (amount of uptake)Japanese immersion in the States > French immersion in Canada (Lyster & Mori, 2006)English learners in Korea & in NZ > French learners in Canada (Sheen, 2004)Explicit knowledge that foreign language learners possess may affect their processing (i.e., noticing) (Sato, 2011)Meaning-oriented learners vs. Form-oriented learnersNeed for tasks that are adjusted to learners’ cognitive orientationsIn SLA research, there is growing discussion ….
4TBLT and learner factors TBLT and cognitive orientationsMeaning-oriented learnersLearners: Young learners in immersion (e.g., Swain & Lapkin, 1995; 2002)L2 problem: Grammatical accuracyTasks: Dictogloss tasks, writing tasksGoal: Shift meaning-oriented learners’ attention to formForm-oriented learnersLearners: college-level EFL learners (e.g., Fotos, 1994; Fotos & Ellis, 1999)L2 problem: Fluent production using grammatical knowledgeTasks: Consciousness-raising tasksGoal: Rectify grammar-translation methods and find a better way to acquire new grammatical structuresFor form-oriented learners to improve their speaking skills, they may need meaning-oriented tasks in which their attention to form is maintained but not facilitatedThis idea can be applied to TYPES of tasks.Thus, in the present study, meaning-oriented tasks were used to improve learners’ spontaneous L2 production and they were trained to give corrective feedback as a strategy.
5TBLT and Strategy Training Learners can be taught strategies such as corrective feedback (interactional patterns)Bajarano et al. (1997): How to clarify when communication breakdowns occur (i.e., prompts)Naughton (2006): How to provide correct versions of grammatical errors during peer interaction (i.e., recasts)Learners improve their L2 performance when taught a strategy (L2 development)Cohen et al. (1998): Deep breathing, positive self-talk vocabulary sizeDörnyei (1995): Topic avoidance, using pauses Speech ratesNo studies have examined CF training on improvement of spontaneous production (accuracy and fluency)
7Contexts and Participants University students in Japan (N = 167: Biology, Human Development, Economics/Business)Good grammatical knowledge yet poor speakersTypical learning pattern of foreign language learning (especially in Asian contexts)Classroom context4 second-year required English classesCommunicative classesOnce a week for 1.5 hrsDuration: 60 min/week X 10 weeks (10 hours)
9Intervention (Peer Interaction) Fluency-focused activityPaired information-exchangeAuthentic materials (e.g., movies)Change partners multiple timesInformation increases but the delivery time remains the sameAttention is drawn to meaningLearners develop confidence each roundLearners engage in repeated practice: proceduralization
11Modelling Prompts and recasts Prompts: “When you hear an error, let your partner know that without giving the correct form.”Metalinguistic feedback (“You need a past tense”)Clarification request (“Excuse me?”)Recasts: “When you hear an error, give the correct answer to your partner.”Role-play by the teachers: First three weeksFollowing modification moves (modified output) were evenly distributed (i.e., either MO or Ø)
12Practice Learners practiced providing CF Procedures: 10 weeks Groups of three (Speaker, Feedback Provider, Observer)Scenario and Error ListCreate original stories to hide the error sentencesObserver reports back to the group which errors were given CF and missed10 scenarios: One target/dayPI-only group was given a similar role-play activity and their attention was drawn to the same grammatical features on the error lists
13Use-in-ContextDuring the peer interaction activity that all the experimental groups were given (i.e., fluency-focused activity), the CF groups were encouraged to use the CF technique
24Peer CF as a Strategy (Effect) CF is a teachable strategyLearners do not talk about language forms unless they receive feedback from their classmates OR the task itself is designed so (e.g., consciousness-raising tasks)Recasts were easier to give: Doesn’t conflict with teacher CF findings (e.g., Lyster & Ranta, 1997; Ellis et al., 2001)
25Peer CF and L2 development (Effectiveness) CF training contributed to accuracy developmentTask-based interaction + CF training contributed to fluency developmentPeer CF didn’t contribute to fluency development?CF embedded in communicative tasks facilitated grammatical development while maintaining fluency developmentNo grammatical development in PI-only groupTask-based interaction alone was insufficient for accuracy developmentjust like teachers‘ CF, peer CF offered external support that helped learners to improve their monitoring and gave a chance to engage in practice.
26ConclusionIn many foreign language classrooms, learners do not have the opportunity to engage in contextualized practiceTask-based interaction provides transfer-appropriate practiceIn these contexts, teacher CF is often difficult to implementTransforming learners into CF providers is an effective pedagogical optionHowever, for many FL learners, developing spontaneous production skills is more important than engaging in cognitive comparison (= form-orientation)The extent to which learners attention should be drawn to form depends on learning contexts (FL? Immersion?)
27Thank you! email@example.com Sato, M., & Ballinger, S. (in press). Raising language awareness in peer interaction: A cross-context, cross-method examination. Language Awareness 20(3-4).Sato, M., & Lyster, R. (in press). Corrective feedback and peer interaction for accuracy and fluency development: Monitoring, practice, and proceduralization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 34(4).