2 INTERLANGUAGE.Analysis of a learners interlanguage shows that it has some characteristics of the learners’ native language, some characteristics of the second language, and some characteristics which seem to be very general and tend to occur in all or most interlanguage systems.. An interlanguage refers to the L2 knowledge system that learners process as they move towards target language proficiency. Although they are transitional and continually open to refinement, interlanguages are rule governed. They show systematicity, for example in the occurrence of the same errors over long periods , and they show variability
3 Order of AcquisitionThe problem with assertions about orders of acquisition is that they may give the impression of a linear, inevitable progression for the majority of learners, irrespective of social and cognitive factors. The interlanguage continuum is not like that. Progress is mostly gradual and incremental, Development is often not linear, but uneven, and ‘backsliding’ is common. Occasionally there are sudden changes in performances, suggesting a major re-structuring taking place.
4 Five Central Processes of Interlanguage Language transfer… in which features of the L1 are projected on to the L2.Over generalisation of L2 rules in which L2 rules are applied too widely. Ie regular/irregular verb forms.Transfer of training. In which language teaching itself creates language rules which are not part of the L2.Strategies of L2 learning, the means through which the learner builds up the L2, such as repetition.Communication Strategies the ways in which the learnr tries to communicate in the L2.
5 THEORIES OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING 1 If similar patterns of development exist among varying types of learners, the theory should say something about language learning universals.If learners have different language backgrounds and are exposed to different input, how do environmental factors affect learning?If children and adults have different rates of acquisition/learning, and proficiency levels, it must say something about age.A theory must take into account all factors, affective, linguistic, cognitive.If second language learners need to focus on form [accuracy] for at least some of their learning, it must say something about conscious and unconscious learning.
6 …2Second language learning must be based on something more than mere exposure to input.If interlanguages give rise to non-target like forms that were never modelled in the input, there must also be considerable cognitive input on the learners part, so learning may not be based on environment alone.If interlanguage development is gradual and U-shaped, [not linear] learning may not be occurring as the result of “the steady accumulation of generalisations based upon the learners perception of the frequency of forms in input”.A comprehensive theory may be interactionist [Long 1990] since individual learners vary, and so do environments for learning. As a result, a theory of Language acquisition/learning must recognise the importance of both learner variables and environmental variables in language development.
7 FOSSILISATIONA key concept in interlanguage theory is ‘fossilisation’ i.e. the state of affairs that exists when a learner ceases to progress towards the target language norms. Such a learner has an interlanguage which is fixed, and impervious to continued exposure or instruction. You may wish to consider how valid or real the idea of learner language actually fossilising is. However its existence is widely acknowledged
8 VARIABLE COMPETENCE.Nemser called interlanguages ‘approximative systems’ and Corder called them ‘traditional competences, but the term ‘interlanguage’ is used both to describe a learners language at a particular point in time, and its continuing development over time. Ellis stresses the system of interlanguage, identifying its horizontal dimension, as a snapshot,a point in time in learner competence, and the vertical dimension of the developmental stages that the learner covers over a stretch of time.
9 MonitoringConscious monitoring of language may be called upon by the learners and, when they are participating in different types of discourse, they bring new rules into their repertoire. Usage then leads learners to attempt to bring items and rules from planned discourse for use in unplanned discourse. Often there are competing rules in a learners’ interlanguage leading to free or systematic variation in their TL production.
10 REFERENCESBada, E Pausing, preceding, and following ‘that’ in English. ELT Journal 60/2 ppSelinker, L Rediscovering Interlanguage. Longman.Pit, Corder, S Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford.Selinker. L Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics. 10/3 ppStoynoff, S Case Studies in TESOL Practice. ELT Journal.58/4.Corder, S.P Error Analysis and Interlanguage OUP.Tarone, E Variation in Interlanguage. London.Nemser, W Approximative Systems of Second Language Learners.International review of Applied Linguistics 9,
11 REFERENCES 2Tarone , E On the Variablility of Interlanguage Systems. Applied Linguistics 4/2 pSelinker, L Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics. 10/Harley B. et al The Development of Second Language Proficiency. CUP.Long, M.H The least a second Language Theory Needs to Explain. TESOL Quarterly. 24:McLaughlin, B Theories of Second Language Learning. Edward Arnold.Corder, S.P The Notions of Simplification, Interlanguage, and Pidgins and their Relation to Second Language Pedagogy. Droz.Ellis, R The Study of Second Language Acquisition. OUP.Ellis, R Understanding Second Language Acquisition. OUP