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The Enlightenment Mr. Hardy Randolph Middle School 2012-2013.

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1 The Enlightenment Mr. Hardy Randolph Middle School 2012-2013

2 The Beginning of the Enlightenment 1500-1700: European scientists using reason to discover laws of nature – Very successful: Planetary movements, chemistry, vaccine for smallpox, etc. Early 1700’s: If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws? – Laws that govern human nature – Reformers begin studying human nature and societal problems

3 Major Enlightenment Ideas Every social, political and economic problem could be solved through the use of reason Governments are created to secure an orderly society Separation of powers is the best way to protect human liberties All men are created “free and equal” A free market should be allowed to regulate trade

4 The Spread of the Enlightenment

5 Enlightenment Thinkers John LockeThomas Hobbes

6 Social Contract Thomas HobbesJohn Locke Humans are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish. To escape this “brutish” life people entered into a social contract. Only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society. Believed only an absolute monarchy could keep a society completely orderly. Humans are naturally reasonable, moral and good Humans have natural rights: life liberty and property People form governments to protect natural rights Best government was one with limited power If a government violates people’s natural rights, people have the right to overthrow government

7 Jean Jacques Rousseau believed politics and morality are not separate he is considered an opponent of the Enlightenments emphasis on reason rely more on instinct and emotion government is a contract between the ruler and citizens wrote The Social Contract

8 Enlightenment and the Economy Physiocrats were Enlightenment thinkers who focused on economic reforms Laissez-Faire: allowing business to operate with little or no government interference

9 Activity THIS ACTIVITY WILL BE EXPLAINED BY MR. HARDY AND DONE IN CLASS Complete the Body Biography Activity on either Locke, Rousseau, or Hobbes. You pick! DO NOT GLUE IT IN YOUR NOTEBOOK!

10 The Enlightenment Day #2 Mr. Hardy Randolph Middle School 2012-2013

11 Enlightenment and Society Detested the slave trade and slavery Deplored religious prejudice Defended freedom of speech Attacked divine right theory Urged education for all Hated unequal distribution of property Believed governments should be freely elected Women’s first duty was to her family

12 Enlightenment Changes Society Women: Women were not equal and were criticized for attempting to gain equality Salons: Gatherings to discuss ideas Music: Ballets and operas become popular Art: Baroque gives way to rococo art (simple, elegant and charming) Literature: Novels become popular

13 Enlightenment Changes Society Majority/Lower Class/Peasants: Slow to change and hurt the worst Some peasants become eager for change, some resist change completely

14 Baron de Montesquieu: Criticized absolute monarchy and admired British government – British protected themselves from tyranny by dividing powers of government between three branches: legislative, executive and judicial (misconception) – Each branch of government should be able to ‘check’ the other two What government does this sound like?

15 Voltaire Advocated freedom of thought, speech, politics, and religion. Against the Roman Catholic church and Christianity- religious tolerance He was imprisoned in the Bastille in Paris and exiled because of his attacks on the French government and the Catholic Church.

16 Mary Wolstonecraft disagreed with societies treatment of women believed marriage was particularly unfair to women advocated equal education for women and men wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women believed that both sexes could contribute equally to society

17 Activity THIS ACTIVITY WILL BE EXPLAINED BY MR. HARDY AND DONE IN CLASS Complete the Philosopher’s Chart. Write in complete sentences. Your icon should be no bigger than the box provided and should symbolize the thoughts of that Philosopher.

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