2 The AppealsEthos, Pathos and Logos are modes/types of persuasion used to convince audiences that your point of view is more valid than others.They are also referred to as…three persuasive appealsthe rhetorical triangle
3 EthosEthical AppealHow well the author convinces a reader that they are qualified in order to speak on a certain subjectHow well the author presents themselves as a trustworthy sourceHow well the writer shows that the issue is a matter of “right” and “wrong”
4 How To: Establish Your Ethos Show your background knowledge (authority) on the subject.Make it clear why you are qualified to talk about itEstablish a common ground between you and the reader.Present information that will appeal to roles that many people play.Establish your honesty and credibility.Use balanced, even language and tone. Do not appear extreme in one way or anotherCorrect grammar, formal languageAdmit any personal interest in your claim. Reveal your biasesAcknowledge your limitations. Show humility.Concede to opposition
7 Stop & JotWhen have you seen someone use the ethos appeal effectively?Think about parents, teachers, friends…Political or commercial advertisements…
8 Pathos Emotional Appeals Target the audience’s feelings May be positive or negativeUsually the most effective because they touch our hearts, but should not be the only appeals used because may be seen as less reliable
9 How To: Establish Pathos Include description and figurative language to create vivid images that the reader can imagineUse anecdotes (or small stories) to share personal experiencesStrong emphasis on points (and their importance)Humor to create ease with sensitive topics, admit mistakes, or call for change (satire)Emotionally loaded language to show disappointment, excitement, shock, etc.
11 How is this an example of pathos? When California was voting on Proposition 8 (whether or not to ban gay marriage), this ad campaign came out.
12 Stop & JotWhen have you seen someone use the pathos appeal effectively?Think about parents, teachers, friends…Political or commercial advertisements…
13 Logos Logical Appeal How well you make your claims seem logical How well you “make sense”Most important because they link directly to your claim/argument
14 How To: Establish Logos Use hard evidenceFacts, clues, statistics, testimonies, witnesses, surveys, polls, definitionsUse reason and common senseUse comparisonsAcknowledge oppositionDiscuss precedents