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Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Genomics, Genetics, Genome, Gene, Proteins, Proteome, Proteine Chemistry, Proteomics,

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Presentation on theme: "Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Genomics, Genetics, Genome, Gene, Proteins, Proteome, Proteine Chemistry, Proteomics,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Genomics, Genetics, Genome, Gene, Proteins, Proteome, Proteine Chemistry, Proteomics, … Attempt of an overview and systematics Uttendorf 2004

2 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Overwiev 1.Cells 2.Molecules of live 3.Genes and genome 4.Proteomics 5.On some concepts of signal processing in life science

3 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 1. Cells procaryotic /eucariotic nucleus (chro- mosomes) / cytoplasma (i.e. mitochon- dria, ribosomes) Cell cycle

4 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 2. Molecules of live Small molecules nucleotides (i.e. DNA bases A, C, G and T) 20 different amino acids as the building blocks for proteins, i.e.

5 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Proteins main building blocks and functional molecules of the cell 20% of cell weight (water: 70%) four levels of structure 3 – 10 nm

6 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 DNA main information carrier molecule in a cell polynucleotide, i.e. consists of several nucleotides A, G, C and T simplest case: single stranded; directed chain of 4 different small molecules called nucleotides, i.e. A G T C C A A G C G A A T G Complementary strand: mutually exchange A with T and C with G and change direction; for our example: T C A G G T T C G C T T A C Complementary nucleotides bind weakly longer compl. strands tend to stick together A-G-T-C-C-A-A-G-C-G-A-A-T-G-C | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | T-C-A-G-G-T-T-C-G-C-T-T-A-C-G

7 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3

8 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 RNA similar to DNA, but single stranded functionally different types: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA

9 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 3. Genes and genomes Genome: an organisms complete set of DNA Organism No. of Chrom. Genome size in base pairs Bacteria1~ ~ Yeast Worm Fly Weed Human

10 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Genes and protein synthesis Gene: continuous stretch of DNA, from which a particular type of proteins can be made Proteine syntesis 1. Transcription

11 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 2. Splicing pre-mRNA

12 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 3. Translation Result: Preprotein

13 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Protein synthesis (summary)

14 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Genetics vs. Genomics Genetics: Study of single genes and their effects Genomics:study not just of single genes, but of the functions and interactions Qualitative shift in medical applications: concept of one desease concept of information (Genetics) (Genomics)

15 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 4. Proteomics One genome - different proteomes! Proteome: Constellation of all proteines in a cell

16 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Just one special tool: 2D-Gelelektrophorese I.e. analysis of proteine pattern for brain tissue More proteine GFAP is produced in case of Alzheimer

17 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3

18 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Proteine Chemistry vs. Proteomics Proteine ChemistryProteomics Individual proteins Complete sequence analysis Emphasis on structure and function Structural biology Complex mixtures Partial sequence analysis Emphasis on identification by database matching Systems biology

19 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 5. On some concepts of signal processing in life science

20 Zentrum für Technomathematik Mathematik / Informatik Fachbereich 3 Summary DNA mRNA Proteins Cell functions Genome Genomics Proteome Proteomics


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