Presentation on theme: "Protein Synthesis Let’s make some protein!. Protein Synthesis: An Overview Genetic information is contained within the nucleus of a cell DNA in the nucleus."— Presentation transcript:
Protein Synthesis: An Overview Genetic information is contained within the nucleus of a cell DNA in the nucleus directs protein synthesis Protein synthesis occurs in ribosomes located in the cytoplasm How does a ribosome synthesize the protein required if it does not have access to DNA?
Protein Synthesis: An Overview The answer lies in an intermediate substance known as mRNA (m stands for ‘messenger’) Information is copied from DNA into mRNA, this is called transcription mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm of the cell Ribosomes use the mRNA as a blueprint to synthesize proteins composed of amino acids, this is translation
Remember RNA…? Ribose sugar Single stranded A pairs with U G pairs with C Resides in nucleus and cytoplasm
RNA There are three types of RNA: mRNA is the “blueprint” for construction of a protein rRNA is the “construction site” where the proteins are made tRNA is the “truck” delivering the proper amino acids to the site of protein synthesis
Genes and Proteins Genes are a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that code for a particular protein, such as a chemical (adrenalin), enzyme (lactase), or hormone (dopamine) Proteins drive cellular processes, determine physical characteristics, and manifest genetic disorders by their absence or presence (ex. Hemophilia)
Transcription Double-stranded DNA is unzipped and copied onto a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) Recall that on RNA, the A nucleotide binds with U, instead of with T
Translation After transcription the mRNA exits the nucleus via nuclear pores Ribosomes bind to the mRNA Ribosomes read the sequence on mRNA The mRNA is read in triplets (called codons) Each triplet is the codon for an amino acid (protein building block)
Match Game Consider the following mRNA sequence: A U G A A U G A G C U G A A C How would translation match this section?