Presentation on theme: "Gene to Protein Part 2: Translation After the mRNA transcript leaves the nucleus it goes to a ribosome (site of protein synthesis)."— Presentation transcript:
Gene to Protein Part 2: Translation After the mRNA transcript leaves the nucleus it goes to a ribosome (site of protein synthesis).
Protein Structure Review Proteins are chains of amino acids. There are 20 possible amino acids in proteins.
The Genetic Code Each amino acid is encoded by a sequence of 3 nucleotides.
mRNA codons Every 3 nucleotides in a mRNA strand that encodes one amino acid in the protein is called a codon.
The Genetic Code is universal. All organisms build the same protein from a given sequence of DNA.
tRNA: the translator molecule tRNA molecules: Folded piece of RNA Exposed 3 nucleotide sequence called an anticodon. (complementary to a codon). Attached amino acid corresponding to the codon.
Pair Share Discuss with your table partner: The similarities and differences between mRNA and tRNA in terms of structure and function.
Both mRNA and tRNA are made of chains of nucleotides tRNA’s are folded and have an attached amino acid. Both are involved in translation to produce a protein. mRNA’s are a copy of a gene to produce a specific protein An “army” of tRNA’s in each cell work to produce all the proteins needed in a cell by translating the mRNA (matching up the correct amino acid)
A tRNA with an anticodon complementary to the mRNA codon pairs up, carrying the corresponding amino acid. A second tRNA pairs with the next codon, and the two amino acids are joined by a peptide bond. The mRNA is slide down the ribosome bringing the next codon to the tRNA binding site. This process continues, building the protein, until a stop codon is reached.
Translation Video Click once on image to start http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z-32M043rfI
Another Translation Video with Ribosomes click once on image to start http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kbB2kMkmb0w
Pair Share Review with your table partner the overall process of translation..