2 8.4 – DNA TranscriptionKEY CONCEPT Transcription converts a gene into a single-stranded RNA molecule.Gene: A specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
3 RNA carries DNA’s instructions. The central dogma states that information flows in one direction, starting with DNAThrough Transcription, DNA changes into RNAThrough Translation, RNA changes into a Protein.
4 The central dogma includes three processes. ReplicationTranscriptionTranslationreplicationtranscriptiontranslationDNA contains the instructions to make proteins. RNA is a link between DNA and proteins.
5 RNA differs from DNA in three major ways. DNA has a deoxyribose sugar, RNA has a ribose sugar.RNA has uracil instead of thymine (found in DNA)A pairs with UDNA is a double stranded molecule, RNA is single-stranded.
7 Transcription makes three types of RNA. Transcription copies a piece of DNA (a gene) to make a strand of RNA.
8 1. Transcription is catalyzed (run) by RNA polymerase (an enzyme). RNA polymerase and other proteins form a transcription complex. The transcription complex recognizes the start of a gene and unwinds a segment.start site5. nucleotidestranscription complex
9 7. RNA polymerase moves along the DNA 2. ONE strand of DNA serves as a templateNucleotides pair with one strand of the DNA.RNA polymerase bonds the nucleotides together.The DNA helix winds again as the gene is transcribed.4. DNA7. RNA polymerase moves along the DNA
10 3. The RNA strand detaches from the DNA once the gene is transcribed.
11 Transcription makes three types of RNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the message that will be translated to form a protein.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) forms part of ribosomes where proteins are made.Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids (protein building blocks) from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to build the protein.
12 The transcription process is similar to replication. Transcription and replication both involve complex enzymes and complementary base pairing.Both processes take place in the nucleus.The two processes have different end results.Replication copies all the DNA; transcription copies a gene.Replication makes one copy; transcription can make many copies.growing RNA strandsDNAonegene
13 8.5 – TranslationKEY CONCEPT Translation converts an mRNA message into a polypeptide, or protein.
14 Amino acids (protein building blocks) are coded for by mRNA base sequences. A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that codes for an amino acid.codon formethionine (Met)leucine (Leu)
15 one start codon (AUG), codes for methionine and to start translation The genetic code matches each codon to its amino acid or function.one start codon (AUG), codes for methionine and to start translationthree stop codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) signal the end of a chain of amino acids.The genetic code matches each RNA codon with its amino acid or function.
16 Reading frame: multiple codons that code for a chain of amino acids A change in the order in which codons are read changes the resulting protein – this is why having a clear “start” and “stop” is importantCommon language: Regardless of the organism, codons code for the same amino acid.
17 Amino acids are linked to become a protein. An anticodon is a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon.An anticodon is carried by a tRNA. tRNA carries amino acids from cytoplasm to the ribosome to become part of the growing protein.EXAMPLE:mRNA codon=GUUtRNA anticodon=CAAAmino acid=Valine
18 Where does translation happen? Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. They are located in the cytoplasm & on the rough ER.Ribosomes are made of rRNA & proteins. They have a large & small subunit.Helps form peptide bonds between amino acids.
19 How does translation happen? 1. For translation to begin, tRNA binds to a start codon (Met in picture) and signals the ribosome to assemble.A complementary tRNA molecule binds to the exposed codon (Leu in picture), bringing its amino acid close to the first amino acid.
20 2. The ribosome helps form a polypeptide bond between the amino acids. The ribosome pulls the mRNA strand the length of one codon.
21 3. The now empty tRNA molecule exits the ribosome. A complementary tRNA molecule binds to the next exposed codon.Once the stop codon is reached, the ribosome releases the protein and disassembles.