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Highlights of SPO III. Left: Copy of proclamation by the Lord Mayor of London and Privy Council, declaring the hereditary right of King James to the Crowns.

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Presentation on theme: "Highlights of SPO III. Left: Copy of proclamation by the Lord Mayor of London and Privy Council, declaring the hereditary right of King James to the Crowns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Highlights of SPO III

2 Left: Copy of proclamation by the Lord Mayor of London and Privy Council, declaring the hereditary right of King James to the Crowns of England, France, and Ireland March 24 1603, SP 14/187 f.6 24 th March 1603 King James I succeeds Queen Elizabeth as King of England and Ireland

3 Left: The ANONYMOUS LETTER to Lord Monteagle, by which the Gunpowder Plot was said to be discovered, warning him not to be present at the meeting of Parliament, for that they shall receyve a terrible blowe this Parleament, and yet they shall not seie who hurts them. Indorsed by Salisbury, The Irê W eh was wrytten to y e L.. Mountegle. Oct. 26 1605, SP 14/216/1 f.10 5 th November 1605 The Gunpowder Plot is revealed as an attempt to assassinate the king

4 SP 14 covers the reign of King James I. The preservation of the The Anonymous Letter to Lord Monteagle led to the collection of the material relating to the Gunpowder Plot that was bound into a 3 part volume now known as SP 14/216 The Gunpowder Plot Book Proclamation denouncing as traitors, Thos. Percy, Robt. Catesby, Ambrose Rokewood, of Coldham Hall, Suffolk, Westminster. Thos, Winter, brother of Rob. Winter, of Huddington, Worcsstershire, Edw. [John] Grant, of Norbrook, John Wright,Chr Wright, and Rob. Ashfield, conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot. Printed. Nov. 7 1605, SP 14/16 f.32a Examination of John Johnson (Guy Faukes) as to the storing of powder, &c.. in the Parliament cellar,his connections abroad, whether Mr. Percy would have allowed the Earl of Northumberland to perish, &c. He refuses to inculpate any person, saying, youe would have me discover my frendes : the giving warning to one overthrew us all ; signed John Johnson. Nov. 6 1605, SP 14/216/1 f.3 Declaration of Guy Faukes [made to Salisbury]. Further details of the Plot. It was communicated to Hugh Owen, the Jesuit, in Flanders. The conspirators met at the back of St. Clement's Inn. Gerard, the Jesuit, gave them the sacrament, to confirm their oath of secrecy, but knew not their purpose. They also met at Walley's [Garnet's] lodgings near Enfield. Nov.9 1605, SP 14/216/1 f.90 Extracts from examinations, to prove what meetings have been held amongst the Gunpowder conspirators and priests since Midsummer last; what preparations they had made; that the assembly at Dunchurch was on pretence of hunting: the plan of insurrection, &c. Nov. 21? 1605, SP 14/216/2 f.193

5 Left: Chamberlain to Carleton. Particulars of the last illness, death, and post-mortem examination of the late Prince. Turquet [Mayerne] much blamed for bad treatment of him. A cordial was sent him by Sir Walter Raleigh, who loses by his death his greatest hope of release. His debts are to be paid and his pensions continued. His revenue of 60,000l. returns to the King, till Prince Charles is older. The Duchy of Cornwall is said to revert to the Crown, as being entailed only on the King's first-born, The Prince's early death was prophesied, because he never cast his first teeth. Distress of the King and Queen, and of Lady Elizabeth, who went several times in disguise to see him, but was refused admission, for fear of contagion. He had intended to conduct her to Germany. Nov. 12 1612, SP 14/71 f.46 6 th November 1612 Sudden death of the heir to the throne: Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales

6 Left: Sir Francis Nethersole to [James Earl of Carlisle ?]. On Saturday last, in the forenoon, the Duke was stabbed, in his chamber at Portsmouth, by one Lieutenant Felton, and died presently of that wound, which he received under the left pap. The circumstances are related with much difference. That which most agree in is, that the Duke, lying that morning somewhat long abed, was called up by Walter Montagu to hear some good news of the relief of Rochelle. Mons. de Soubise coming to him to hear of this news, Felton came into his Grace's chamber. In the tumult, some imputing the deed to the French, Felton boldly took it on him, and said be had done it for the good of his King and country. He had some private discontentment for being put by the company when his captain was slain in the Isle of Rhe', but he alleges his desire of the public good for the cause of his fact, and offered not to escape. Various circumstances antecedent to the fact, which are very considerable; a sailor killed in a mutiny, and rumours prevalent in London, Cornwall, and Huntingdonshire. The King took the Duke's death very heavily, keeping his chamber all that day, as is well to be believed; but tee base multitude in this town drink healths to Felton, and there are infinitely more cheerful than sad faces of better degree. The stone of offence being now removed by the hand of God, it is to be hoped that the King and his people will come to a perfect unity, and that the Earl will return to be a principal instrument in that good work. Aug. 24 1628, SP 16/114 f.8 23 th August 1628 Assassination of the Kings favourite: George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham

7 Left: Sir Francis Nethersole to Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia. Sends the Declaration set forth by the King of the causes which moved him to dissolve the late Parliament, together with another of a like nature made by the late King. In the late dissolution one thing was extraordinary, to wit, that the House of Commons (to which their Speaker was forbidden to come that day) was not sent for up to the Higher House, as the manner has always been, although there were above 200 persons there expecting to be called up, which has given much discontent. Some of the Lords excuse it as having happened by a chance, but it is sure enough that it was done of purpose, for the King addressed not his speech to the Lords and Gentlemen, but to the Lords only. Lord Bristol came to Sir Francis in the Court the other day, and remarked that during the time of the King's displeasure against him he had thought it respectful to her Majesty and her husband to forbear to make any address of his duty to her, but that being again right with his Majesty, and readmitted to bis Court (where he has been very much of late), he should doubt it might otherwise be interpreted, and would therefore take the boldness to do it by his letters. Mr. Simon Digby has also prayed Sir Francis to intreat the Queen to express her good opinion of him in a postscript of some letter to Lord Dorchester. Acknowledges her favour to his wife and himself in remembering them with some relique of him who is now a saint in heaven. March 21 1629, SP 16/139 f.43 1629-1640 Eleven Years Tyranny. In March 1629, Charles dissolves parliament and rules alone for eleven years

8 Left: The petition of the House of Commons which accompanied the Remonstrance or Declaration on the state of the kingdom, presented to the King [at Hampton Court] on occasion of his safe return from Scotland. Congratulates his Majesty on his safe return, and enumerates grievances for which they pray redress. Dec. 1 1641, SP 16/486 f.1 1 st December 1641 Presentation to the king of the Grand Remonstrance, a list of complaints about kings government

9 Left: The King's speech to the House of Commons, demanding that the five members accused of high treason be delivered up. [Copy with corrections in the King's hand. 1 p.] Jan. 4 1642, SP 16/488 f.25 4 th January 1642 The King enters the House of Commons demanding that the five members accused of treason be seized. This event leads to Charles fleeing London before engaging in a civil war against parliament between August 1642-1648

10 Left: A Journal of the Proceedings of the High Court of Justice erected by Act of the Commons of England, entitled An Act of the Commons of England assembled in Parliament for erecting of a High Court of Justice for the trying and judging of Charles Steward [Stuart], King of England; as it was reported in the House of Commons and attested under the hands of Andrew Broughton and John Phelps, Clerks of the said Court. This MS. gives a fuller narrative, viz.: Then the Clerk reads. Clerk. Charles Stuart King of England, you are accused, on the behalf of the people of England, of divers high crimes and treasons, which charge hath been read unto you. The Court now requires you to give Your final and positive answer by way of confession or denial of the charge. King.Sir, I say again, that so I might give satisfaction to the people of England of the clearness of my proceedings, not by way of answer, not in this way but to satisfy them that I have done nothing against the trust that hath been committed to me, I will do it; but to acknowledge a new Court against their privileges to alter all the fundamental laws of the kingdom in their behalf, Sir, you must excuse me… Jan. 6-30 1648-49, SP 16/517 30 th January 1649 King Charles I is executed on a scaffold outside of the Palace of Whitehall

11 In the series SP 16 relating to the reign of Charles I, State Papers Online contains a journal (SP 16/517) that documents the trial of King Charles I

12 Lord President Bradshaw. This is the third time that you have publicly disowned this Court and put an affront upon it. Lord President. Sir, you have heard the pleasure of the Court, and you are, though you will not understand it, to find that you are before a court of justice. King. Well, Sir, I find I am before a power ; and [then] went away. These words he spake with a low voice as he was going away. Ordered, that the scaffold upon which the King is to be executed be covered with black, King. Sir, I say again, that so I might give satisfaction to the people of England of the clearness of my proceedings, not by way of answer, not in this way but to satisfy them that I have done nothing against the trust that hath been committed to me, I will do it; but to acknowledge a new Court against their privileges to alter all the fundamental laws of the kingdom in their behalf, Sir, you must excuse me Clerk. Charles Stuart King of England, you are accused, on the behalf of the people of England, of divers high crimes and treasons, which charge hath been read unto you. The Court now requires you to give Your final and positive answer by way of confession or denial of the charge. A Journal of the Proceedings of the High Court of Justice erected by Act of the Commons of England, entitled An Act of the Commons of England assembled in Parliament for erecting of a High Court of Justice for the trying and judging of Charles Steward [Stuart], King of England Jan. 6-30 1648-49, SP 16/517

13 Left: to. I believe you have too soon heard of our misfortunes' at Worcester, and it is possible there are some amongst you who blame our proceedings rather than pity us; but if they knew the state of our master'affairs when he was in Scotland and here, they would say other- wise. Cromwell would not fight us in our own country, but with great advantage to himself, he knowing that our army lying idle would moulder to nothing, as indeed it had, if His Majesty had not brought them away. It consisted of 12.000 fighting men, absolutely under his command, who being marched into the heart of the kingdom, and possessed of the city of Worcester, might in all probability have proved a notable step towards the resettling of this kingdom, had not God determined it otherwise. The King omitted nothing that might encourage the country to rise with him, or at least to be neuter; but on the contrar they rose (which had they not done, without doubt we had beaten Cromwell'forces, they being inconsiderable) violently against us, to such numbers as made the enemy near 40,000, and the least any of their officers' report them was 36,000. With this number they came before us at Worcester. The city was neither fortified nor victualled, but His Majesty thought he could not in honour leave them who had so willingly received him, to be plundered by the enemy. … … Endorsed by [Sec. Nicholas} : Relation of the defeat of the King'army at Worcester,3/13 September, 1651. Sept. 17 1651, SP 18/16 f.51 3 rd September 1651 The Battle of Worcester, the final battle of the English Civil War, takes place between Scottish and English Royalists led by Charles II and Cromwells Parliamentarian troops

14 Left: Proclamation by the Council. Whereas the late Parliament dissolving themselves, and resigning their powers and authorities, the government of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by a Lord Protector, and successive Parliaments, is now established; and whereas Oliver Cromwell, Captain General of all the forces of this commonwealth, is declared Lord Protector of the said nations, and has accepted thereof, we have therefore thought it necessary (as we hereby do) to make publication of the premises, and strictly to charge and command all and every person of what quality and condition soever, in any of the said three nations, to take notice hereof, and to conform and submit themselves to the Government so established. All sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs, and other public ministers and officers whom this may concern are required to cause this proclamation to be published in their respective counties, cities, corporations, towns, to the end that none have cause to pretend ignorance in this behalf. List of the Protector's Council, viz.: Mr. Lawrence, President, Sir Gilb. Pickering, Viscount Lisle, Sir Chas. Wolsley, Major-Gen. Lambert, Sir Anth. Ashley Cooper, Major-Gen. Desborow, Mr. Rouse, Major-Gen. Skippon, Mr. Strickland, Col. Jones, Mr. Major, Col. Sydenham. Dec. 16 1653, SP 18/42 f.98 16 th December 1653 Oliver Cromwell is proclaimed Lord Protector of the Commonwealth. He is reinstalled as Lord Protector on 26 June 1657 after he refuses the crown

15 Left: Reply of Rich. Cromwell, on an order of-Parliament prefixed of 16 May, referring it to such M.P.'s as are members of the Committee of Safety, to consider his condition and debts, and how far he acquiesces in the present Government. I have caused a true state of my debts to be prepared, showing when and how they were contracted. My past carriage shows that I acquiesce in God's will, and value the peace of the Commonwealth much above my own concerns, having learned to submit to God's hand, and not be unquiet under it. I could not, on account of my late engagements, be active in making a change, but I freely acquiesce in it, and as I expect protection from the present Government, so shall I demean myself peaceably under it, and so influence all in whom I have any interest. May 25 1659, SP 25/91 f.5 25 th May 1659 After succeeding his father as Lord Protector in 1658, Richard Cromwells reign is marked by discontent and he is forced to resign as Lord Protector in May 1659.

16 Left: The King to Gen. Monk. We would not aggravate, but rather bury the memory of our being dispossessed by force of our rights, and would owe our restoration to our subjects at home, rather than to foreign assistance; therefore tue send to you, who are able to prevent a ivar, to use the Army in defence of religion, the King, Parliament, liberty, and law, and vindicate the trust which others have betrayed. We send a declaration to show that we desire no effusion of blood. You know that power, unless supported by justice, cannot make a nation happy, and we hope you, will bring the blessing of peace and reconciliation on King and people, and perform your duty to us and your native country. Breda, 4/14 April 1660. May 1 1660, SP 18/221 f.10 4 th April 1660 Charles II signs the Declaration of Breda in response to General George Moncks invitation for Charles to return from exile as king.

17 In the series of volumes relating to the reign of Charles II (SP 29), State Papers Online contains numerous volumes of petitions that relate to the beginning of Charless reign dating from May-Dec 1660. Many were from those professing their loyalty to the Royalist cause during the civil war detailing the hardships they had suffered as a consequence Volumes of Petitions, addressed to the King

18 John Bathe. For relief and maintenance. Was attacked, wounded, imprisoned, and deprived of his pension in a foreign country, for resenting the profanation of His Majesty's name by ill-affected subjects Oct. ? 1660, SP 29/20 f.1 John Tinkler. For a competency for life. Lost his eyes and both arms, serving the late King as cannonier, and has lived since on the charity of those who compassionated him as being his late Majesty's servant; but the sun being now risen again upon these kingdoms, entreats aid. Oct. ? 1660, SP 29/20 f.52 [Sir] Jonathan Wiseman, of Glaston, co. Somerset, and his wife. For relief; details of his sufferings in the late war; he was knighted by the late King; was once on the ladder to be hanged, but his wife got him off, by bringing in a lease and some writings; was carried again to death five miles under a horse's belly, but escaped and slipped into a ditch; his wife's estate, worth 7,000l. a year, was pawned by the late King for nine years for 10,000l., and ample recompense promised for it. Oct. ? 1660, SP 29/20 f.39 To THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY Petition of Mary Graves to the King, for the place of Victualler of the Navy for her husband, and an advance of money on account. Sent His Majesty 12 horses, 10 furnished with men and money, and two empty, on one of which His Majesty rode at Worcester fight, and on the other escaped from it. June 2 1660, SP 29/3 f.15 Attended the present King at Worcester, and for proclaiming him, was committed close prisoner, till April 1658, charged with high treason, and always expecting death, by which and by plunderings, his fortune is utterly wasted. Oct. ? 1660, SP 29/20 f.16 For Relief: Dame Elizabeth, relict of Sir Thos. Ryves. Being violently enforced to take his most dismal and sorrowful last, long leave of His Majesty, he was so utterly heart broken that he languished and died, leaving her in most distressed condition; the late King owed her husband many hundred pounds, and gave him many gracious promises. Oct. ? 1660, SP 29/20 f.33 Sir Fulk Greville. For a place as Gentleman Usher or Cupbearer, in which capacities he served the two late Kings. He and his sons risked life and estate, with Major-General Massey, for recovery of His Majesty's title. May? 1660, SP 29/2 f.13 Captain William Croome. For the place of Groom of the Chamber or Messenger in Ordinary. Served the late King till his death, and attended his present Majesty to Scotland, where he was wounded and taken prisoner at Musselburg; has been much reduced by sickness and poverty. SP 29/2 f.21, May? 1660 Petition of Thos. Lanier to the King, for the Receivership for Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, or some other county. His ancestors have long been servants to the late Kings, and he and his father thought it disloyal not to want conveniences when the Royal possessions were violated by sacrilegious hands, and served the cause with the loss of their little all. … June 11 1660, SP 29/3 f.138

19 Left: Proposal of expedients for prevention of the plague, showing that the infection greatly spreads by the present attempts at concealment, and by not shutting up a house till some one in it dies, as many persons may have visited the house and spread the infection in the interim; but if it were published that every infected person shall have medical attendance, &c., and payment for loss of time, persons would not conceal their misfortune, and 40 houses thus provided might prevent the infection of 10,000. With proposal that a stock may be raised, physicians appointed, and commissioners accountable to the King bejoined with the physician for their management. May ? 1665, SP 29/122 f.185 1665-1666 The Great Plague in London marks the last major outbreak of the plague in England

20 Bills of Mortality A search on plague in State Papers Online reveals 715 entries with manuscripts containing a reference to plague. In addition to these references there are also many bills of mortality detailing the numbers of people who died as a result of the plague

21 Left: to Lord Conway. Alas, my lord, Londonall London, almost, within the walls, and some part of it which was without the wallslies in ashes. Last Sunday, at 1 a.m., a fire broke out in Pudding Lane, burned the new houses on the bridge, and left the old ones standing; came down Thames Street and backwards to the Tower, where the buildings were old, and their contentspitch, hemp, rosin, and flaxcombustible, so that in 6 hours the stream of tire was a mile long. The season being extremely dry, the springs were low and no water could be had, and the east wind blew as though it had a commission from heaven to execute on the city. The fire went by Fish Street Hill to Canning Street. Gracechurch Street, Lombard Street, Cornhill and Bartholomew Lane, Lothbury, Austin Friars and Broad Street; northwards, likewise to Fenchurch Street and Lime Street, burning down all the churches and the Royal Exchange; then by Friday Street and Cheapside to Newgate Market, Smithfield, Holborn Bridge, St. Paul's Churchyard, Ludgate Hill, and the Inner Temple, a corner of which took fire and was there quenched, as also in Fleet Street, over against St. Dunstan's, or it might have swept away Whitehall and Westminster; but these are left standing, also the suburbs, viz., the Strand, Covent Garden, Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Holborn as far as the bridge, Hatton Garden, Clerkenwell, and St. John's Street. … [Sept. 8.] 1666, SP 29/450 f.46 2-5 September 1666 The Great Fire of London

22 Left: to Viscount Conway. There has been such an alarm that the fear of a press of horses has emboldened him to send two of his to his lordship's stables for six or eight days. The Dutch, after easily beating off Sir Edw. Spragg from Sheerness Fort, which was not in a posture of defence (for which Sir Edward is much blamed), forced the chain, which some say was fastened with cable yarn, and came up. Ten frigates and as many fire-ships burned the Amity and Matthias. The Royal Charles, having 30 guns mounted, fired on them, but her ammunition was soon spent, so the Dutch took her, and put up their flag. Meanwhile the general caused the next ships, viz., the Royal James, Royal Oak, London, and two fire-ships, to be sunk, so the Dutch went away, carrying the Charles; she stuck, and they could not get her away that tide, but kept men aboard; they returned with Thursday's tide, but being unable to pass the sunken ships, stayed till the tide was half spent, and then burned the upper part of the Oak, James, and London. They made another attempt yesterday, but the general had so well provided that they were beaten off, and the same this morning; so they have left the river, and it is said fired the Charles at last. … The loss at Chatham was 500 men. Many English are on board the Dutch ships, and say they have come for money for their tickets. June 15 1667, SP 29/205 f.91 9-14 June 1667 The Battle of the Medway. The Dutch fleet captures important English ships during a phase of the second Anglo-Dutch war

23 Left: Breviate of the Bill for hindering Papists to sit in Parliament. After a short preamble. 1. That no peer or member of the House of Commons sit or vote in Parliament or come into the King's presence or the Court, not having first taken in open Court at Westminster Hall the two oaths and declaration in term time. 2. Provision for their taking the oaths in vacation, but if so they must take them again in Westminster Hall next term. 3. They may come into the King's presence in vacation, provided they take the said oaths and declaration in Westminster Hall next term. 4. Either House may compel their members to take the oaths and declaration in their respective houses. 5. Where a Member of the House of Commons is by this Act disabled, another shall be forthwith chosen in his place. 6. All offenders are made Popish Recusants convict, and are to suffer the same disability set down in the last Act for preventing dangers from Popish Recusants. 7. The sworn servants of the King, Queen and Duke of York not having taken the said oaths and declaration shall, by virtue of this Act, take them in term next after 4 May, or next after his being sworn a servant. 8. A proviso for licensing such Papists to come to the King for a certain time notwithstanding this Act. 9. Proviso freeing all offenders so soon as they shall take the said oaths and make and subscribe the said declaration. Feb. [5?] 1674, SP 29/360 f.229 1672-1678 The introduction of a series of Test Acts, forbidding Catholics to hold public office

24 SP 30 In addition to the series SP 29 covering the reign of Charles II, State Papers Online also contains a series, SP 30, where a large range of the documents are either parchment commissions and certificates, printed pamphlets or large, decorative documents of interest. The Character of a Popish Successor and what England may expect from such a one, humbly offered to the consideration of both Houses of Parliament appointed to meet at Oxford SP 30/G f.740 London's Wonders or London's Warning; to prevent our farther Destruction by Fire, wherein is shown the great causes of God's thus destroying us by fire, with a call from Heaven to speedy repentance. SP 30/F f.1 Emblazoned coat of arms of Robert, Earl of Sunderland, and Baron Spencer of Wormleighton, one of the King's plenipotentiaries for the general peace SP 30/F f.1 Strange new and true news out of Wales, of the late discovery of a wild man, or mighty gyant, strange of shape, supposed to be about 11 foot in height; with the true description of his person. SP 30/F Commission incorporating James Duke of York and 36 assistants, as Governor and Company of the Royal Fishing of Great Britain and Ireland, the Duke to be Governor till February 26, 1665. SP 30/B f.7 Letters patent granting to Edw., son of the late Thos. Seymour, the office of Messenger in Ordinary in the Exchequer. SP 30/B f.3

25 Left: The King to the Prince of Orange, telling him of the Duke of Monmouth's defeat. July 7 1685, SP 8/3 f.289 6 th July 1685 The Monmouth Rebellion. The Duke of Monmouth, Charles IIs illegitimate son, is defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor

26 King Williams Chest State Papers Online contains papers from both the reign of King William III as well as in his capacity as Prince of Orange. The series SP 8 contains Williams public and private papers, with an interesting set of documents detailing his correspondence with his father-in-law, King James II. Two series of note are SP 8/3 and SP 8/4, with letters written by James both as Duke of York and later as king. The Duke of York to the Prince of Orange. I was so much troubled by the news that came yesterday from the Hague of your having the smallpox, that, though it gave an account of their coming out well and of your being in as good a condition as could be expected, yet I could not hinder myself from sending the bearer, Ashton, to assure you of it and to know how you do, and I shall be in very great pain, till I hear of your being quite out of danger. Holograph. March 31 1675, SP 8/3 f.11 The Duke of York to the Prince of Orange. I had by the last post yours of the 13 (N.S.) from Dieren, by which I was very sorry to find my daughter's eyes were so ill as to oblige her to let blood. I hope that will cure her, it being the best remedy for such kind of defluctions. I am now just back from my journey from Tunbridge. I came from thence yesterday, lay at London, went this morning to Hampton Court to Council, from whence I am just come with his Majesty to this place. The post is just ready to go, so that I must end.… July 11 1684, SP 8/3 f.211 The King to the Prince of Orange, notifying him of the death of King Charles II, February 6 1685, SP 8/3 f.239 The King to the Prince of Orange, warning him of Monmouth's meeting with fugitive rebels in Holland. April 28 1685, SP 8/3 f.259 The King to the Prince of Orange. I find by yours of the 26 (N.S.) that you intended to be going in three or four days to Loo. 'Tis now a very good season of the year to be in the country. I have not heard any other way as yet of the Elector of Saxe designing to come hither, but by yours and my daughter's letters. Prince George had heard nothing of it when I asked him about it. March 23 1688, SP 8/4 f.132

27 Left: The King to the Prince of Orange. The Queen was, God be thanked, safely delivered of a son on Sunday morning, a little before ten. June 12 1688, SP 8/4 f.142 10 th June 1688 Controversial birth of the heir to the throne, Prince James, Prince of Wales to king James II and his wife Mary of Modena. There were rumours that the baby was a changeling in an attempt to secure the Catholic succession

28 Left: The Earl of Devonshire, Earl of Danby, Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Lumley, the Bishop of London, Admiral Russell, and Henry Sidney to the Prince of Orange. We have great satisfaction to find by 35, and since by M. Zulestein, that your Highness is so ready and willing to give us such assistances as they have related to us. We have great reason to believe that we shall be every day in a worse condition than we are and less able to defend ourselves, and therefore we do earnestly wish we might be so happy as to find a remedy before it be too late for us to contribute to our own deliverance; but although these be our wishes yet we will by no means put your Highness into any expectations which may misguide your own counsels in this matter, so that the best advice we can give is to inform your Highness truly both of the state of things here at this time and of the difficulties which appear to us. … and we must presume to inform your Highness that your compliment upon the birth of the child (which not one in a thousand here believes to be the Queen's) hath done you some injury. … We need not say anything about ammunitions, artillery, mortar- pieces, spare arms etc., because if you think fit to put anything in execution you will provide enough of these kinds and will take care to bring some good engineers with you… June 30 1688, SP 8/1/2 f.224 30 th June 1688 The beginning of the Glorious Revolution. Following the birth of the Prince of Wales, the Immortal Seven appeal to the Prince and Princess of Orange to use military force to remove King James II from the throne and to make Jamess daughter, Mary Princess of Orange, the heir

29 Left: [Lord Godolphin] to the King. Yesterday being appointed for the opening of the books and taking the subscriptions to the Bank, the Commissioners of the Treasury waited upon the Queen for leave to go into the city and subscribe ten thousand pounds for your Majesty, being told the example of it would be a great encouragement to others; this was accordingly done, and it had such good success that the subscription yesterday amounted to near 350,000l. I have not heard what has been subscribed to-day, but so good a beginning seems to leave little doubt but the Bank will now take place notwithstanding the difficulty and obstructions it has met with almost in all places, and from all persons. I don't know what the consequence of it may be hereafter, and whether it will be a prejudice to the public and deserve to be repeated next sessions of Parliament, as some already threaten it shall be, but this I know, that without the 1,200,000l. which we hope for from this Bank and which cannot now be had without it, there will be no possibility of paying the subsistence farther than this next month of July; and therefore whatever opinion any others may have of it as to your service or the good of the public, yet I hope the Commissioners of the Treasury cannot reasonably be blamed hereafter for having promoted it… June 22 1694, SP 8/15 f.79 1694 The establishment of the Bank of England

30 Left: Secret instructions to the Earl of Portland, going as ambassador extraordinary to France. He will assure the Most Christian King of my friendship and of my most earnest wish to live on terms of intimacy and perfect harmony with him, and that I for my part will do all I can with that object, hoping that he will do the same. And to that end the ambassador will try to ascertain whether it might not be possible to find means of preventing a war, which might result if the King of Spain died childless. The ambassador will also do his utmost to induce (obliger) the Most Christian King to make King James and his family quit his dominions, or at least to send them as far from his Court and the seacoast as possible. And the same also above all things as regards the conspirators against my life. At Kensington, this 8 January, 1698. Jan. 8 1698, SP 8/18 f.14 Jan-Jun 1698 The Earl of Portland is despatched to as an ambassador to France to negotiate with Louis XIV to ensure a smooth Spanish succession

31 Lord Portlands correspondence as French ambassador State Papers Online contains important documents describing the five month period that William Bentinck, Earl of Portland, spent as ambassador in France. There are over 30 letters written by Portland to King William III in the collection describing the negotiations during the War of the Spanish Succession with instructions to preserve the peace. The documents can be found in the series SP 8 Lord Portland to William III. Yesterday M. de Pomponne and M. de Torcy called upon me and informed me that they did so by command of the Most Christian King, to tell me that he desired my services in a matter of the utmost importance and secrecy; at the same time assuring me of his entire confidence. After I had made a suitable reply M. de Pomponne said that, as the sentiments of the King, his master, in regard to the maintenance of the peace, were sincere, and as he was convinced that those of your Majesty were the same, it was necessary to anticipate possible causes of disturbance with a view to avoiding it. [He said] that the death of the King of Spain, which might happen at any moment, was such a possible cause, as the same complications from which we had just escaped would then again ensue: that the Most Christian King therefore wished to enter into engagements with your Majesty to prevent such great calamities : that if Spain fell into the hands of the Emperor he would be able to make himself master of all Italy, and be so absolute in the Empire that we should have every reason to fear his preponderating power; that his Most Christian Majesty therefore desired to concert measures with your Majesty respecting that succession, and wished to know whether you were so inclined, and what conditions and securities you would require. I replied that I was surprised at his proposal; that though I must regard the death of the King of Spain as an event which would certainly plunge us again into war, yet it must be regarded as an unavoidable evil, and we could only hope it would not take place soon; that in my view the interests of England and Holland were so opposed to an arrangement, both as regards sea-power and world-trade, that I did not see how your Majesty could give any other than a general answer, unless I were informed of the views of the Most Christian King as to the details of his intended proposals. He answered that he could not enter into details till your general views were known; and that even then it would be necessary to ascertain from you what you might think proper, in the interest, and for the safety of the two nations. I said I was sure that if I wrote to your Majesty, in the general terms in which he spoke to me, I could not expect any other answer than that you were willing to listen to proposals; and as I saw finally that I could make no more of it, I gave him my private views in a conversational way and mentioned whatever I thought would be contrary to our interest. I won't repeat this to avoid prolixity. He replied that the question of the Low Countries could be easily arranged to your Majesty's satisfaction ; that as regards Spain itself sufficient guarantees would be given that it would never fall under the dominion of the same king as France; but as to the Indies and the security of the Mediterranean trade, two points upon which I laid great stress, they made no answer, merely requesting me to inform your Majesty of what he (sic) had proposed and of what he had said of the views of the King his master, and to be informed of yours, Sire. I did not want to say anything to cause it to be thought that I had any knowledge of your Majesty's intentions, especially as they revealed little or nothing. I shall therefore wait to know your pleasure and the line you wish me to take. If however I have an opportunity, I will speak to M. de Pomponne again in conversation and try to induce him to be a little more frank. I beg your Majesty to excuse the mistakes in my letter, which is of such a character that it cannot be shown to a soul, and I have barely time to read it over, much less take a copy, because M. le Daufin has sent for me to go hunting with him immediately, and I did not want to make an excuse and I cannot put it off. I am just going to get into my carriage to go to Meudon. The Comte de Tallard leaves to-day. I think they waited so long, before speaking to me about this, on purpose, in order to be able to make use of him in this business if they are not satisfied with me; though the inflexibility which I have shown, in all the difficulties that have been thrown in my way, is approved by everyone at Court, and all the blame is laid upon the introducers, whom Monsieur himself calls ignorant and impertinent. Perhaps they think that I shall not let myself be drawn into matters, where my small intelligence shows me that I shall not further your Majesty's service nor the interest of the two nations. Paris, the 15th March, in the morning. Portland. Mar. 5–15 1698, SP 8/18 f.158

32 Left: This is a list (in early nineteenth century hand) of orders and proclamations in relation to the war, stores, fortifications, prizes securing seamen &c, issued [apparently] by the Privy Council or Queen in Council. The orders &c. run from 26 March, 1702, to 23 February, 170. The list is endorsed by the writer: Copy. Council Office Account [&c. as in heading]. Note:This bundle contains copies of such of the letters and orders mentioned in this list as have been marked by the Lord Chancellor. Latest date, 23 Feb 1704, SP 34/3 f.159 1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession. Britain declares war on 15 th May 1702

33 Left: A manuscript pamphlet with pictorial cover, addressed to the queen, covering many subjects, including: regret at loss of Sir Cloudesley Shovel; comments on the union of Scotland with England, etc [?1707] 1707 Union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain

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