# Review.  Conditionals 1, 2, 3  Modals of obligation, lack of obligation and necessity  Modals of deduction and speculation in the past  Vocabulary.

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Review

 Conditionals 1, 2, 3  Modals of obligation, lack of obligation and necessity  Modals of deduction and speculation in the past  Vocabulary  Writing: For and against essay

 1Choose the correct answer.  1We form the first conditional like A / B.  A: If or Unless + simple present + simple future  B: If or Unless + simple future + simple present  2This sentence is true / false:  The first conditional shows that something will happen as a result of present actions or events.  3These two sentences have the same / a different meaning:  If we keep flying so much, we will dramatically increase carbon emissions.  We will dramatically increase carbon emissions if we keep flying so much.

AFFIRMATIVE

 1Choose the correct answer.  1We use the second conditional to talk about possible or close / imaginary or unlikely events in the future.  2The future events are more likely to happen in A / B.  A:If he comes, I’ll be very pleased.  B:If he came, I’d be very pleased.  3I’d in second conditional sentences is short for I had / I would.  4If I was you is more / less formal than If I were you.  5If only I had some money has the same meaning as A / B.  A:I wish I had some money.  B:I used to have some money.

If I won a million dollars I …. AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

 1Choose the correct answer.  1The third conditional refers to events in the past / future.  2Events described in the third conditional can still / never happen.  3This is how the third conditional is formed:  If + past perfect + would(n’t) have + past participle  If + simple past + would(n’t) + infinitive  4These two sentences have the same / a different meaning:  If they hadn’t caught him, he would have changed history.  He would have changed history if they hadn’t caught him.  5These sentences express dreams / regrets about the past:  He wishes he had gone there before.  If only I had tried harder.

If I had listened to mom…. AFFIRMATIVE I would have taken some time to rest on weekends. __________________________________ how to cook. [to learn] __________________________________ the children to do some chores. [to teach] __________________________________ a trip to Europe last December. [to take] __________________________________ my teeth after the meals. [to brush] __________________________________ more time with my family. [to spend] What would you have done if you had listened to your mom?

 1Choose the correct answer.  1Have to and must show that doing something is compulsory / preferable, e.g.:  I must go to the dentist – my tooth really hurts.  I have to do a test before I can get that job.  2Need to means it’s necessary / possible, e.g.:  He needs to get his hair cut – it looks terrible.

 3To talk about things that are forbidden / unnecessary we use mustn’t, e.g.:  You mustn’t go diving without taking a course.  4Had to is the past of have to / have to and must.  5Don’t need to and mustn’t have the same / a different meaning, e.g.:  You don’t need to call them tomorrow.  You mustn’t call them tomorrow.

 1Choose the correct answer.  1We use the form modal + have + past participle to make guesses about past / future events, e.g.:  He must have understood.  He can’t have gone.  She might have missed the train.  2We use must have in this sentence because we have worked out that something definitely happened / probably happened.  Look – the fridge is empty – Tim must have come home.

 3We use can’t have in this sentence because we have worked out that something definitely happened / didn’t happen.  No, Will’s phone isn’t here, so he can’t have come home yet.  4We use could / may / might have + past participle to talk about what definitely happened / possibly happened, e.g.:  He may have gone out again before we got back.  5In sentence A / B you are not sure about what happened.  A: He must have gone to the movies.  B: He might have gone to the movies.

Conclusion: summarize main points – state your opinion Connectors: to sum up – in conclusion – I personally believe that – in my opinion Paragraph 3 Disadvantages: on the other hand, Furthermore, moreover Paragraph 2 Advantages: on the one hand, to begin with, first, second Paragraph 1 General information about topic – rethoric question

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