Presentation on theme: "WRITING EFFECTIVE TRANSITIONS WAYS TO GIVE YOUR WRITING “COHERENCE”"— Presentation transcript:
WRITING EFFECTIVE TRANSITIONS WAYS TO GIVE YOUR WRITING “COHERENCE”
TRANSITIONS ADD COHERENCE We use transitions in our writing to add coherence. We want our writing to “flow smoothly” and not sound “choppy.” One way to save money is to open a savings account. In addition, money market accounts or CD’s are another money-saving option. We also want our readers to be able to understand how our ideas are related to one another. Money in a high-interest savings account can really add up quickly. For instance, if a person puts just $30 a month in a savings account, they could accrue $60 in interest by year’s end. Transitions also help our readers to identify major supporting details. Another terrific way to save money is to cut unnecessary expenses.
WHICH SOUNDS BETTER? WITHOUT TRANSITIONS: There are several reasons not to fill babies’ bottles with sugary juice. It can rot their teeth. It can cause above- average weight gain. WITH TRANSITIONS: There are several reasons not to fill babies’ bottles with sugary juice. First of all, it can rot their teeth. In addition, it can cause above-average weight gain.
YOUR TOPIC SENTENCES = CONTROLLING IDEAS Your topic sentence is the controlling idea of your paragraph—therefore it should control how you write your other sentences. For instance, if you write the topic sentence: There are several ways that college students can better manage their finances. Then you can repeat that key list phrase “several ways” throughout your paragraph to remind your readers of your main point. One such way that college students can better manage their finances is to... Another way that college students can manage their money is to... A final way....
YOUR TOPIC SENTENCE = CONTROLLING IDEA Here’s another example: Topic sentence: Students at Salem Community College must complete a number of steps in order to declare their major. The key list phrase “number of steps” can be repeated throughout the paper to remind readers of the main point. The first step a student must complete is.... The next step to declaring a major is... Last, but not least, students must complete the step of...
LIST PHRASES List phrases inform your readers that you will be presenting a list of details of some kind. It is useful to include a list phrase in your topic sentence, because it helps your topic sentence to be more general. (Topic sentence = “umbrella idea,” all supporting details fit under it) Common list phrases include: Several reasonsA number of factors A series of Several kinds (ways)Three advantages of Various reasons for Several causes of Five stepsA number of effects Some factors inAmong the results
LIST PHRASES LIST PHRASE IN TOPIC SENTENCE Several reasons Five steps Among the results A number of effects Some factors in Various ways TRANSITIONS TO USE BEFORE MAJOR DETAILS One reason... Another reason... The first step... The next step... The first result... Subsequently... The first effect... A later effect... One factor... Another factor... One way... A second way...
TRANSITIONS SIGNAL HOW OUR IDEAS ARE RELATED When we want to add ideas, we use addition transitions like: first (second, third, and so on), also, and, another, as well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, next, too, to begin with, for one thing, moreover, last of all, finally Example: Depression can be eased through therapy and medication. Physical exercise has also been shown to help.
TRANSITIONS SIGNAL HOW OUR IDEAS ARE RELATED When we want to show time or sequence, we use time words: first (second, third, and so on), after, at present, now, at the same time, before, during, eventually, finally, immediately, later on, meanwhile, next, soon, then, following, last of all, and specific dates (January 23, 2012) Example: The first books in the United States were imports, brought by the new settlers. Then, in 1683, a press in Cambridge, Massachusetts printed a book of psalms that became an instant bestseller. During the years that followed, booksellers emerged in the Boston area, and by 1685 the leading bookseller offered over 3,000 books.
TRANSITIONS SIGNAL HOW OUR IDEAS ARE RELATED When we want to provide an example, we use illustration words: For example, for instance, such as, including, specifically, to be specific, as an illustration, to illustrate, in particular, namely, one such Example: A number of famous historical figures, such as Beethoven, Charles Dickens, and Winston Churchill, suffered from depression.
TRANSITIONS SIGNAL HOW OUR IDEAS ARE RELATED When we want to add emphasis, we use emphasis words: above all, especially, more (most) importantly, indeed, in fact, the most important reason Example: Come to class on time, be well prepared and above all, try to have a positive attitude toward learning.
TRANSITIONS SIGNAL HOW OUR IDEAS ARE RELATED When we want to make a comparison, we use comparison words: Just as, just like, alike, same, both, equally, resemble, likewise, in like fashion, in like manner, similarly, similarity, in a similar fashion, in the same way Example: Car manufactures often show beautiful women with their products, as if to suggest that owning the car will bring social rewards. In the same way, alcohol ads typically show people in fun or romantic settings.
TRANSITIONS SIGNAL HOW OUR IDEAS ARE RELATED When we want to show contrast, we use contrast transitions: But, yet, however, although, nevertheless, still, instead of, in contrast, on the other hand, on the contrary, conversely, opposite, even though, as opposed to, in spite of, despite, rather than, difference, differently, unlike, while Example: In most Western cultures, it is considered normal to marry for love. However, in places where arranged marriages are the norm, it is assumed that love will follow marriage.
TRANSITIONS SIGNAL HOW OUR IDEAS ARE RELATED When we want to show the causes of something or the effects of something, we use cause & effect transitions: therefore, thus, as a consequence, consequently, due to, so, as a result, led to, since, effect, if...then, affect, because of, for this reason Example: Young babies have weak necks and relatively heavy heads. Consequently, it is important to support the baby’s head firmly when you hold him or her.
PUT IT TO WORK... 1.Try using stronger, more effective transitions in your writing. Use a variety; not the same ones over and over. 2.You especially want to include transitions before MAJOR SUPPORTING DETAILS. 3.Refer to the transitional words and phrases handout as you draft/revise.