2Summary Should we teach with presentations? PowerPoint in/supporting lecturesSupporting student activityRefining presentationsSome PowerPoint facilitiesTips for preparationAdvantages and disadvantages of presentation slides
3What’s the use of lectures? Donald Bligh 1972 … as effective as other medianot effectivenot very effectiveHis review of research into what (traditional) lectures might be good for:transmitting information ?promoting thought ?changing student attitudes ?
4Lecturing to large groups Andreson 1990 Faced with bigger classes and/or more classes, two responses are possible for lecturesRefinement as theatre: enhance style, techniques, presentation skills & technologyAugmentation with student activity, feedback, dialogue, using other mediabetter presentationsless ‘lecturing’
5Uses for PowerPoint In “Refinement” Effective delivery of information Structured note-makingEfficient for staff (in long run)In “Augmentation”Support student activity in lecture periods with questions, interactive handouts, …
6Selecting media Some or all of Displays using (35mm slides) Acetates (LCD panel with overhead projector)Digital projector, fixed or portableInteractive whiteboardPaper handouts in various formsWeb pages in various forms - accessibility
7Presentation slides Provide clear, readable text In attractive colours, designsThe consistency helps understandingCan append during a lecture, make dynamic and responsiveAutomatic numbering, footers, administrative information helps filing
10HandoutsNote-taking is passive, boring and inefficient - look at their notes! So, for example ...Full handouts of slides for accuracy and to save time, especially diagramsSemi-notes with missing content; unlabelled diagrams, empty tables, bullets - instruct students to complete themSkeleton notes of structure + keywords - students to add detail during the lecturestop after this slide and get them to write down one example they can try, then tell their neighbor about it.
11Web versionsMake presentation accessible to students before or after lecture (Accessibility required from 2002/3)With full versions of slides for reference, colour, animation, etc.You could include lecturer’s notesAs an Acrobat (pdf) file, handouts are ready for printing
12Tips for better presentations Prepare:Know your audience, the room, lighting control, equipmentAcetates backup (?)Design easily understood charts, graphs, pictures, diagramsRehearse – use the PowerPoint rehearsal feature for timing
13Summary: advantages of presentation software Clear, legible textInformation in well structured chunksImages, diagrams, charts done easilyHandouts are copies of screens but can have gaps, questions, space for notesUse the same slides on a digital projector, acetates, web pages, handoutsUse different selections of slides for modifying presentations, reusing slides
14Summary: disadvantages of presentation software Some ready-made designs are too complex and print badlyIt imposes a modular structure of slides and bullets - can fragment an argument or storySummary: disadvantages of presentation softwareAll content can look the same, boring, death by PowerPointLearning to use it!Drawings are time-consuming, (but photo images are easy)Keeping versions for handouts and screen, or hiding some slides or objects
16ReferencesLee Andreson, Lecturing to large groups, in C. Rust, Teaching in Higher Education, 1990, SCED Paper 57, ISBNDonald Bligh, What’s the use of lectures? Exeter: Intellect, 1998, 5th ed.Phil Race, The Lecturer’s Toolkit, 2001 Kogan PagePaul Ramsden, Learning to teach in Higher Education, 1992, Routledge, ISBNfor presentation technologyDesigning Slide Presentations for Adults by Raymond W. Barclay Jr. and Nancy G. Wyatt
17Some bad reasons for lectures Students expect themTo fill up the timetableTo keep students under controlThat’s how I was taughtIt’s always been done like that…
18Some good reasons for lectures Introduce a new topic, relate to other topics, where detailed information comes laterDo course administration and changesProvide and introduce reading materialProvide a social occasion between students and with staffEngage student interest, stimulate thinking, make memorable demonstrationsSome students like lecturesEfficient use of staff time with large numbers
19What’s the use of lectures? Donald Bligh 1972 … His review of research found that lectures might be good for:transmitting information ?promoting thought ?changing student attitudes ?
20Lecturing to large groups Andreson 1990 Faced with bigger classes and/or more classes, two responses are possible for lecturesRefinement as theatre: enhance style, techniques, presentation skills & technologyAugmentation with student activity, feedback, dialogue, using other media
21Handouts – a skeleton Try handouts of slides ‘semi-notes’ ‘skeleton notes’stop after this slide and get them to write down one example they can try, then tell their neighbor about it.