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European identity European Societies Professor Claire Wallace.

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1 European identity European Societies Professor Claire Wallace

2 European identity vs national and regional identity: plan 1.National identity and nationalism 2.How do we account for national identity? 3.Different kinds of national identity in Europe 4.European identity – is it the same as national identity

3 Three Rises of Nationalism 1. End of Nineteenth Century from period of 1848 uprisings against the Habsburg Empire. Break up of the Habsburg Empire into many small nation states (principle of self-determination). Completed after end of First World War. Unification of Italy and Germany 2. End of British Empire after Second World War. Rise of new states in Africa and Asia in 1950s and 1960s 3. Break up of Soviet Empire. Re-emergence of older nations (Czech Republic, Poland, Georgia, Armenia, Baltic States) after 1988 and creation of new ones, accelerated after Soviet Union dismantled in Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Slovakia, Kazakhstan, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia

4 Nationalism Debates Ernest Gellner: nationalism is a modern phenomenon. Based on idea that cultural/ethnic community and territory should be congruent in form of a state. Created by elites. Education system essential. Anthony Smith: nationalism based also on older cultural/ethnic groupings primordial Erich Hobsbawn/Benedict Anderson nation is imagined community (post-modernist)

5 Different kinds of nationalism Civic nationalism: associated with membership of a particular nation and community of citizens (from French Revolution) (possible basis of European identity) Habermas constitutional patriotism Ethnic nationalism: based on cultural/language group Ethnic communities become political communities. Often in revolt against alien rulers.(not possible basis of European identity because no common language and culture)

6 Four time zones of Europe From Ernest Gellner Bride=culture, Groom=Political movement/state 1.Western Seaboard: strong dynastic states that unified national territory from middle ages onwards. The state existed before the nation. Nationalism was a present of history. Language and culture already present. Bride and groom had been cohabiting before marriage 2.Central time zone: High cultures existed (Italian and German) but fragmented political states. Need to create states under a common cultural roof. Unified in 19 th C. Bride was waiting for groom to appear 3.Central-East time zone: mixture of many small ethnic and cultural groups. Ethnic groups mainly peasant cultures with no literate tradition. Nationalism began with ethnography (descriptive/normative) folklorists, school teachers, Awakeners at end of 19 th C and beginning of 20 th C. But difficult to build a territory. People had to be assimilated, expelled or killed. Groom had to be created and bride had to be found. 4.Eastern Tsarist Empire: became Soviet Empire. Controlled territories forcefully and incorporated models of ethnic nations. But collapse meant rise of new nationalisms. Harem model


8 European identities: Three theories (Spohn) 1. European identity a weak addendum to National identity 2. In the long run European identity will replace national identity 3. People will hold both identities

9 Identification with Europe

10 European identity as cosmopolitan identity Argument that European identity is based upon cosmopolitan conception (Delanty/Beck) Constructivist/discursive rather than essentialist Unlike monolithic national identity. Different concept of culture Identities can be multiple - overlapping, nested, cross-cutting,mixed, hybrid, co-existing Ethnic, regional and national relate in different ways Assumes variety and plurality of tongues and peoples and cultures Flux and change is normal European identity contained in national identity Assumes we can have a number of identities simultaneously Can it replace national identity? According to Habermas needs late modern society to be well developed. In post-national society identity not based on territory or culture or state. Reflexive and critical influence of modern culture. Late modernity/post modernity

11 Problems with cosmopolitan concepts of EI Not all countries can be described as post modern – multiple modernities Nationalist backlash against cosmopolitanism/Europeanisation Limits of constructivism Increasingly anglo-centric Lack of passion?

12 Bases of European identity Civilisational/historical (WW2, Romans) Econonic instrumentalism Integrationist Civic identity/ civic patriotism (not ethnic) – but lack of civic engagement with EU Symbols/Ritual State building – increasing powers Elite project (but so was national identity) Sites/heroes (Jean Monnet? Berleymont building?) Construction of the Other – is it strong enough? Anti war? Anti Muslim (but Bosnia)? Anti American? Convergence (Kaelbe) family and class, work and mass consumption, the European city, the welfare state Education system – missing dimension CW Culture – but no common language? Loyalty missing due to lack of trust and community and legitimacy Democracy/Modernisation But according to Delanty an Rumford, a post-national loyalty is gradually emerging – thin kind of loyalty. Reflexive loyalty and solidarity

13 European values Social justice Welfare Environmentalism European capitalism? Scandinavian type Therborn Collective identity relative to the EU Thin and thick identities

14 European identities: Modern marriage? Many competing strong and competing brides Weak groom

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