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European Citizenship Claire Wallace European Societies (2)

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Presentation on theme: "European Citizenship Claire Wallace European Societies (2)"— Presentation transcript:

1 European Citizenship Claire Wallace European Societies (2)

2 Origins of citizenship Greeks – small number of men to maintain democracy based on genealogy Romans – privileged group of people in Rome Medieval times – urban dwellers

3 Modern ideas of Citizenship TH Marshall (1961) Civic (18 th C) Political (19 th C) Social (20 th C) Saw citizenship as a slow evolution associated with modernisation Concerned with relationship to social class and inequality – tension between equality of citizenship and market society

4 Problems with Marshalls ideas Based on nation state (assumption) Different progression elsewhere (e.g. Eastern Europe social citizenship before civic) Slow evolutionary model (can also go backwards) Left out idea of struggle to achieve rights (passive Gender/ethnicity/youth/animal rights/environmental rights etc. Migration challenged the idea of citizenship Challenged by neo-liberal ideas (Marshall social democratic version of citizenship

5 New concepts of citizenship Neo-liberal challenge – citizen is individual, not associated with social rights Emphasis on responsibilities rather than rights (active citizens) Emphasis on market society

6 Communitarian idea of citizenship Based upon community and identity Amitai Etzioni Cultural politics, obligations Power of community over individuals Independent of the state Reaction against liberal idea of citizenship

7 Radical idea of citizenship Role of social movements Voice, power and identity Identity politics Based on recognition of difference, not just individualism or community Feminist critique of citizenship (Lister)

8 Different models of citizenship across Europe Citizenship debate became a debate about who is entitled to belong to the national community Germany: blood descent (jus sanguinis) France: citizenship by birth (jus soli) UK: No citizens only subjects until 1981

9 Citizenship in Europe Variety of levels of citizenship: Members of national community (passport) Non-resident members of national community EU nationals Third country nationals Favoured members of the national group Guest workers Students/ visitors Business people Refugees and asylum seekers Illegal migrants

10 Challenges to idea of citizenship Post national citizenship – EU rights Post national citizenship – Human rights/Civil Rights/UN Convention etc. International tribunals Human rights Transnational communities Are nationality and citizenship losing connection? Maintained by global civil society? Delanty – cosmopolitan citizenship

11 Post-national citizenship European integration Phase 1: rescuing the nation state – France, Germany and keeping out the USSR, 1950s Phase 2: Nation state as form of integration into Europe (from EEC to EC) 1980s Phase 3: 1990s (from EC to EU). Single market, social integration not just political and economic co-operation Phase 4: 000s Euro and Enlargement Volume of law making, lobbying etc. increased

12 Critiques Liberal critique (loss of sovereignty) Civil society critique (no transnational civil society) Communitarian critique (no identity) Radical critique (new forms of exclusion)

13 European post-national society Political community – mostly consists of nation states How legitimate is the EU Multi-level governance Subsidiarity

14 Cultural post-nationalism No common language No unified history No education system Lack of identity How to construct multi-cultural identity? Constitutional patriotism? Different meanings for different groups

15 Civic community Informational/virtual society? Transnational civic culture? Cosmopolitan community? Cosmpolitan public space? How to overcome idea of citizenship based on nationality – based on residence? (Soysal)

16 European citizenship Rights Responsibilities Participation Identity No longer unitary concept of citizenship but fragmented Citizen as worker or citizen as consumer? Citizenship no longer just about equality – also how to preserve difference End of citizenship? (no longer nation, identity politics)

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