2 Key Concepts• Eastern Europe has great cultural diversity because many ethnic groups have settled there.• Many empires have controlled parts of the region, leaving it with little experience of self-rule.
4 History of a Cultural Crossroads Cultures Meet• Location between Asia and Europe shapes Eastern Europe’s history- migration creates diversity, empires delay independent nation-states• Area includes:- Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,Croatia, Hungary, Poland- Czech Republic, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia,Slovenia, Yugoslavia• Cultural crossroads—place where various cultures cross paths- people move through the region, world powers try to control it
6 Empires and Kingdoms• Rome holds Balkan Peninsula, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary- later held by Byzantine Empire, then OttomanEmpire in 1300s, 1400s• Slavs move in from 400s to 600s; Polish, Serbian kingdoms form- non-Slavic Magyars take Hungary in 800s; laterconquered by Ottomans• Austria becomes great power in 1400s, takes Hungary from Ottomans- in late 1700s, Austria, Prussia, Russia divideup Poland
8 Turmoil in the 20th Century War after War• Balkan nations break from Ottoman Empire in 1908- Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia defeat Ottomans in1912- Balkanization—a region breaks up into small,hostile units• Slavic Serbia wants to free Austria-Hungarian Slavs- Serb assassin kills Austrian noble, starts WWI
10 War after War• After war, Austria and Hungary split- Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland,Yugoslavia gain independence• Germany takes Poland in 1939, starts WWII- Soviets capture, dominate Eastern Europeannations- they become Communist USSR’ssatellite nations
12 Recent Changes• In late 1980s, USSR has economic problems, Gorbachev makes reforms- Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romaniaremove communism in 1989• After communism comes instability, return to ethnic loyalties- Yugoslavia violently divides- Czechoslovakia splits: Czech Republic, Slovakia
15 Developing the Economy Industry• Under communism, government owns and controls factories- inefficient system brings shortages, tradedeficiencies, pollution• After 1989, region tries market economy—making goods consumers want- factories are privately owned, but inflation,unemployment rise• Cost cutting and improved production help some economies growLingering Problems• Albania has old equipment, lack of materials, few educated workers• Romanians lack money to invest; government owns some industries
16 A Patchwork Culture Cultural Diversity • Numerous languages make regional unification difficult• Religions include Catholicism (Roman); Eastern Orthodox (Byzantine)- Protestant minority; Islam from Ottoman Empire• Holocaust kills 6 million Jews, half of them from PolandFolk Art• Folk art is produced by rural people with traditional lifestyles- pottery, woodcarving, traditional costumes• Folk music influences Frédéric Chopin (Polish), Anton Dvorák (Czech)
19 Moving Toward Modern Life Less Urban Development• Large cities include 1,000-year-old Prague in Czech Republic• Most of region has fewer urban residents than rest of Europe- only 40% in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 37%in Albania live in cities• Cities will grow as industry develops- so will pollution, traffic, housing problemsConflict• Fierce loyalty to ethnic groups leads to violence- many Serbs hate Croats for WWII collaborationwith Nazis
21 Conflict• Discrimination against minority groups- anti-Semitism—discrimination against Jewish people- discrimination against nomadic Romany (Gypsy) peopleDemocracy• Eastern Europeans must overcome old hatreds• Unlike past dictators, officials must obey the rule of the law- in 2000, Yugoslavs force out a dictator who lost the election
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