Presentation on theme: "Nationalisms South Africa, Middle East, Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1Nationalisms South Africa, Middle East, Africa Grade 11: Term 3(Topic 4)
2Background and Focus “The origins of nationalism lie in Europe” “Nationalism needs to be studied as a phenomenon that changed form in WWII.”“The focus should be on understanding where nationalism comes from.”(DBE, History CAPS p22)
3Write down 5 words to describe a ‘nation’. What is a Nation?Write down 5 words to describe a ‘nation’.Ask the group to write down no more than 5 words that for them describe the idea of a ‘Nation’: Discuss Key idea and put them onto a flipchart. Return to these later in the presentation.
4What existed before Nations? Religious CommunitiesDynastic Realms
5What factors caused the rise of Nationalism in Europe?
6A Common Language / literacy 15th Century: invention of The Printing PressNewspapers , pamphlets, books , spread of IDEAS not controlled by the church.Standardised language forms emerged.16th Century: Reformation (Lutheranism)Use of vernacular language (not all Latin)18th century: Mass EducationGrowth in literacy
7Growth of the Middle Class 16th – 17th century new urban based merchant class emerged in Europe. (Middle Class)Middle classes wanted power to control the terms of their trade and business.Needed to unite with the masses (peasants, serfs) to overthrow the existing political structures ie the Kings and Queens.The middle class encouraged a sense of common grievance, a shared identity, the idea that they all belonging to something.
8Industrial Revolution Urbanisation destroyed the old bonds (feudalism, village identity)New identities forged in towns and cities (the ‘citizen’ / sans culottes / working class)Railways made ‘national’ travel and communication possible.Industrialisation created new national wealth and was instrumental in European colonisation (Late 19th C ‘Scramble for Africa’)FA cup final
9The creation of the ‘Nation’ state in late 18th Century. 1776: The American Revolution1789: French RevolutionBefore the 18th century Europe had been dominated by large multi-ethnic empires. New ideas of the will of the majority‘All men are born equal’ , ‘declaration of the rights of men’, ‘We the People’. New symbols – flags, marsailles (anthem)Washington crossing the Delaware – Emmanuel LeutzeLady Liberty leading the people – Eugene de la CroixNationalism is one of the most important consequences of the French Revolution. Napoleons imperial control gave rise to local ‘national opposition’Black man in red shirt who was her ‘prince whipple?’a slave owned by one of three men to sign declaration of independence
10Napoleon and BeyondNapoleon built a great empire and extended French rule across Europe.He also established a state bureaucracy.BUT challenged by nationalist, patriotic armies.1815: Napoleon defeated at Waterloo and empire collapsed.19th century: the map of Europe was re-drawn, new nation-states emerged- Unification of Germany (1870) and Italy (1861).Show the scene from Sarafina when Woopie Goldberg asks the class ‘What stopped Napoleon at St Petersberg? The winter? no! the people!’ etcNB: Revolutions of 1830 and 1848.
11Elements of a Nation A shared History A shared culture and traditions A shared languageA shared religionA shared geographical, sovereign nation-stateNB: Clearly not all ‘Nations’ share these characteristics so nations have to be created in our imaginations.“What the eye is to the lover… language is to the patriot. Through that language, encountered at mother’s knee and parted with only at the grave, pasts are restored, fellowships are imagined and futures are dreamed’ (B. Anderson)
12‘Imagined’ Communities “Imagined communities” are a concept coined by Benedict Anderson. He believes that a nation is a community socially constructed, imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group.This is in opposition to the idea that the elements of a nation are long-standing and natural.
13Why does Anderson say that nations are ‘imagined’ communities? “because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the mind of each lives the image of their communion”
14“An imagined political community that is both limited and sovereign” Definition of Nation“An imagined political community that is both limited and sovereign”Imagined because members cannot all know each otherCommunity because a nation is conceived of as a horizontal comradeship of equalsLimited because no nation encompasses all of mankind, nor even aspires toSovereign because nations came into being during Enlightenment and strive for freedom
16A common language“What the eye is to the lover… language is to the patriot. Through that language, encountered at mother’s knee and parted with only at the grave, pasts are restored, fellowships are imagined and futures are dreamed’ (B. Anderson)Poems, songs, national anthemsHow do you create a sense of nation when there are so many languages?Is language enough? Apartheid government did its best with ‘bantustans’ to create nations on language (although not English and Afrikaans)
19What can a positive nationalism be built on? A sovereign political state guaranteeing full rights to all citizens.A shared constitution.Responsibility for our fellow citizens.Respect for cultural and linguistic diversity.Respect for the sacred memories of others.
20Alternative definitions of Nationalism Hugh Seton-Watson “I am driven to the conclusion that no ‘scientific definition’ of the nation can be derived; yet the phenomenon has existed and exists’Tom Nairn “The theory of nationalism represents Marxism’s greatest historical failure”
21Contexts in which ‘National’ Identities are ‘Created’ Grade 11 Case StudiesAfrikaner Nationalism – South AfricaAfrican Nationalism – South AfricaAfrican Nationalism – GhanaJewish Nationalism – Middle EastPalestinian Nationalism – Middle East