NEW EU MEMBERS OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE Introduction Tibor Palánkai Emeritus Professor Corvinus University of Budapest Master Course 20 14 Prof. Palánkai Tibor
Pattern of CEE Region The countries of CEE region differ in many respect, and often substantially. The heritage of division between East and West is further complicated by great historical, economic, social, cultural differences among the countries of the former Soviet Empire and Balkan. We can examine these countries according several parameters, we can distinguish in several type of groupings.
Groups of CEEcs The six CEcs, the "Visegrad Four" (Czech and Slovak Republic, Hungary and Poland), Slovenia and Croatia. Balkan countries: Eastern Balkan (Bulgaria and Romania) and Western Balkan: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia (Kosovo), Macedónia, Monte Negro. Baltic republics: Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia. Former Soviet Union. Often considered as „Eastern Europe”.
CENTRAL EUROPE The six Central European countries - Eastern Central Europe. Distinguished from Western Central Europe (old EU members), countries, like Austria, Italy (Northern part) or Germany (Bavaria) or even Switzerland. All joined EU in the first round from 2004, except Croatia, which entered the Union in 2013. Romania and Bulgaria often claim to be Central European (joined in 2007).
BALKAN Balkan or South European (Mediterranean) countries: Romania and Bulgaria or “Eastern Balkan”. In EU from 2007. „Western Balkan” countries: they have or negotiate (Albania, Serbia (Kosovo), Monte Negro and Bosnia- Herzegovina) Stabilisation and Association Agreements, prospective members. (Confirmed at Thessalonica by European Council on June 19-20, 2003.) Macedonia submitted EU membership application, but negotiations not yet started.
FORMER SOVIET UNION F ormer Soviet Union - Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and Caucus (Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia). Covered by New Eastern Policies. The former Soviet ruled Central Asian countries face similar problems of transformation. Later have strong traditional relations to Russia, but their language (mostly Turk) and culture- religion (Islam) differ substantially.
RELATIONS TO THE EU Ten new members in the EU: Eastern Central Europe, Eastern Balkan and Baltic countries, Pre-accession stage: Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Monte Negro, Prospective future EU members: Western Balkan, (association till membership realised)
RELATIONS TO THE EU Seeking EU membership, but so far rejected: Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia and Georgia, (associations offered), No EU membership sought or foreseen: Russia, Central Asia and so far Belarus (it may change).
PATTERN OF DIFFERENCES 1. Differences in levels of development. 2. State, speed and the depth of the transformation. 3. The differences in economic situation and stabilization. 4. The social and political situations, 5. State of internal ethnic relations, 6. State of global (EU) integration, 7. Differences in historical, cultural, religious traditions.
Differences in Levels Development The level of development of Netherlands is only 60% higher of that of Portugal, The level of development of CEEcs (new EU10), on average, is about 1/3-1/2 of the old EU15 (2- 3 times differences), The difference between SL-CZ, and EL and PT is minimal, The differences between SL and BG is 2 times, Difference between NL and BG is 3 times.
Differences in Levels Development 2012 The population of West-Balkan candidates is only about 17 million, absorption possible easily. But high differences in level of development. Macedonia 35% (EU 27=100) Serbia 35% Montenegro 43% Bosnia-Herzegovina 28% Albania 30% Norway 195% Switzwerlans 160%
Structure of economies of CEE Industrialization started in the last third of 19 th century in CE, but only few sectors of modern industries emerged. The two world wars brought great damages. Others remained agricultural countries. The rapid industrialization during the 1950s and 1960s turned the CEEcs into semi- developed industrial economies, accompanied by rapid urbanization. Their export structures was not competitive on Western markets. Rapid modernisation and restructuring after 1990.
Historical cultural and religious traditions Central Europe: Historically linked to Roman empire (Latin influences on culture), Competition for influence by Germany and Russia, etc. Catholic, Protestant and Jewish religious dominances. Balkan: Historical links to Byzantine and Ottoman empire, Russia historically seeking influence, Orthodox, Islam and Jewish religious traditions. Baltics: Competition for region among Sweden, Denmark, Germany and Russia. Protestant,Orthodox and Jewish influences and traditions.
History of nation building There are 16 countries in the region (before 1990 only 8), (collapse of SU and YU, - due to democratisation, and acceptance of "self-determination"), Newly created or re-created after 1990 (shorter or longer existence before for example during the war): Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia or Monte Negro, Ukraine etc. Others existing already in 1990 (no border change) Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania (some being independent kingdoms for longer time – Czechs also), Each major ethnicities have their own state (except 6 million Roma), but no pure nation state (minorities).
Size of the Countries 2 larger countries: Poland 36 million and Romania 24 million population, 4 countries with about 10 million population: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, and Serbia, 5 small countries (around 3-6 million): Albania, Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, Lithuania and Slovakia, 5 mini-states (2 million or less): Estonia, Latvia, Macedonia, Monte Negro and Slovenia.