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IR1001 – Week 2 Colonialism Dr. C. Heristchi F43 EWB, Consultation times: Wednesdays 10am-noon.

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Presentation on theme: "IR1001 – Week 2 Colonialism Dr. C. Heristchi F43 EWB, Consultation times: Wednesdays 10am-noon."— Presentation transcript:

1 IR1001 – Week 2 Colonialism Dr. C. Heristchi F43 EWB, Consultation times: Wednesdays 10am-noon

2 Introduction: structure of the lectures Definitions Chronology Analysis

3 Definitions 1 Imperialism: process through which a state attempts to control the economic and/or political and cultural makeup of another state. Colonialism: the most developed form of Imperialism whereby the controlling state invades another state/region so as to exploit its resources and/or for the purposes of large-scale immigration Colonialism: extension of territorial control through either settler colonies or administrative dependencies: indigenous pop. (in)directly ruled or displaced Imperialism: extension of political control policy of extending control over foreign entities to acquire and/or maintain empires Colonialism is one way of achieving more general goal of imperialism

4 Definitions 2 Colony Territory under direct political control through the extension of a states sovereignty over territory beyond its original borders. Cf. Dependent Territory: formally cedes part of its sovereignty Protectorate P. established through formal agreement placing one state in an unequal relationship with another. The latter protects the former (diplomatically, militarily), which accepts specified obligations. N.B.: UK often also controlled local government. Condominium Arrangement in which two (or more) states share sovereignty over a third. E.g. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899- 1956)

5 Definitions 3: Mandates & Trusts (20 th Century) Mandates (post WWI) Def.: League of Nations Covenant (Art. 22) disposes of territories of Ottoman & German Empires defeated in WWI. Mandates justified with necessary transitional period to prepare for independence. Only Mandatory territory still not independent: Palestine Trusts (post WII) UN Charter (ch. 11-13) establishes control of non self- governing territories intended to promote the welfare of the native inhabitants, and advance them toward self- government. N.B. Justification for Trusts virtually identical to that for Mandates!

6 Colonialism and the Imperial Age Process was both extensive (in many parts of the world) and intensive Where: European Empires in the Americas, South and South East Asia, and Africa Who: Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, Holland, Belgium and to a certain extent Germany and Italy When: era of exploration from the late 15th Century - colonial empires reach their peak in the 19th Century, formal independence comes mostly after WW2. How: underpinned by superior military might and apparatus for control – threat and use of violence never far from the surface Why: motivated by economic interests (new materials to be exploited)

7 Chronology: 15 th -17 th Century S & P divide world: Treaty of Torsedillas (1494) Portugal: trader colonialism Informal, settlements/outposts coast of Africa & Asia; 1 st & longest-lived global empire (1415-1999). Spain: settler colonialism try to assimilate local cultures deeper impact South & Central America Debate: Do Amerindians have souls…?…or rights? (slavery!) Portuguese Empire at height, 16 th C Spanish Empire at height, 1790

8 Chronology: 18 th Century The Netherlands trader C: Dutch Indies Trading Cos., followed by state Rise in patriotism (struggle against Spain) Britain Migration: wars of religion start afresh (N.Am.) Slave trade: agricultural economies (sugar, cotton, tobacco) Gain: New France (1760), Aus. (1788), NZ (1840) Lose American colonies (1776-83) 1757: UK E. India Co. conquers Bengal France: Fall of 1 st Empire …Rise of Nationalism (1789+) Industrial Revolution First British Empire, 1760 Dutch Empire, 18 th Century

9 Chronology: 19 th Century Britain: mass migration India: 1857 Mutiny direct rule Africa: Cape to Cairo Divide & Rule: Ireland, India, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Iraq France Algeria 1830 (settler/assimilation) Indochina, French Africa Scramble for Africa Long Depression (1873-96) + protectionism African markets solve deficits Increasing strategic rivalries …Informal formal col. British Empire, 1921 French Empires: First Empire (15 th - 18 th C) and Second (19 th -20 th C)

10 Chronology: 20 th Century Japan: Co-Prosperity Sphere Econ. & ideological reasons anti-imperial imperialism WW2…beginning of end… United Nations Trusteeship Council UK, France, and WWI Ottoman fall: Sykes-Picot, 1916 League of Nations: Liberal discourse, Colonial Practices… …Revolutionary consequences (soon) Italy: Libya, Eritrea, Somalia Fascism & Roman Empire League of Nations Mandates, 1920

11 Military dimensions of Empire Superiority in military technology is vital, as it allows force projection, and thus leverage: extract and enforce favourable terms of trade (e.g. Capitulations) control vastly superior numbers of native inhabitants. Naval technology: Control of the seas: Spain & Portugal (15-17 th C); Ned., UK, France (18 th C) e.g.: importance of Suez Canal Industrial revolution military technology (cannons, repeat rifles, coal- & oil-powered commercial & military navies) & mass production capacity UK, France

12 Economic role of Colonies trader colonialism: metropolitan states drawn in to protect terms of trade (i.e. trading companies profits) Slavery: settler colonialism relied on cheap labour, either subjugated locals or imported slaves Trading companies: Granted monopolies by metropole, had own armed forces and independent foreign policy E.g.: UKs East India Trading Company re-structuring local economies provide raw materials (e.g. Egyptian & American cotton, Caribbean sugar) or luxury goods (S. American gold, Chinese opium) provide markets for metropolitan economies (Sheffield textile mills) fund local elites reform (Muhammad Alis new Egyptian army) Economics, poverty and revolution industrialisation (urbanisation & pauperisation) = increase in inequality social & political tensions E.g.: Egypt 19-20C, Iran under Shah

13 Political impact of Colonialism Arbitrary boundaries: historically separate, if not antagonistic cultures, languages, ethnicities and political systems E.g.: Lebanon, Nigeria, Maghreb, Afghanistan –cf. Kurdistans split Loss of experience: robbed of organic political development for centuries Strategies of rule divide & rule internal divisions both before and after independence India, Iraq Assimilation (settler colonialism, longer-term effects on indigenous cultures) Algeria, North & South America, Australia, Southern Africa Association (trading outposts, shorter-term effects) Macao

14 Dilemmas/ambiguities of modernity How to separate modernity from Westernisation and Westoxification (cultural imperialism)? Loss of language and values – can they be retrieved after centuries? Modernisation equated with Westernisation, and used as excuse for domination by colonial powers and local elites… E.g. Iranian Revolution, Beijing consensus

15 How was colonialism justified by invaders in moral terms? Racial arguments: were native populations subhuman/less human? No moral obligations (e.g.slavery) Religious arguments: non-Christians were worth less in the eyes of God and they had less moral worth Cultural arguments: inferior cultures would benefit from influence of superior ones: colonialism carried a civilising mission

16 Conclusion Timeline From trade to settlement and industry Self determination (UN) is a recent concept Hidden world history? History written by the victors of colonialism, myths of the benefits of colonialism, silenced voices of the colonised Aspects & Consequences Military, Economic, Political legacies are clear: will become apparent in later parts of the course The Contradictions of Decolonisation... Decolonisation is successful but emancipation is partial Is colonialism replaced by a more subtle form of Neo- Imperialism?

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