Presentation on theme: " European Imperialism 1800-1914. What is Imperialism? A country increases its power by gaining control of other parts of the world. Goal is not to."— Presentation transcript:
What is Imperialism? A country increases its power by gaining control of other parts of the world. Goal is not to add land to their country, but to get resources and profit from them. Occurred globally during this period, but we will focus on Africa. Europe Africa, Asia, NA, SA Impacted both Africa and Europe
The Historical Background in Europe 1. Scientific Revolution: 1400’s- 1800’s Advances in science and technology Better maps, compasses, ships 2. Age of Exploration: 1400’s-1700’s Curiosity about the world outside of Europe Sailed around the world (DeGama, Dias, Columbus) New peoples, new trade routes 3. Industrial Revolution: 1750’s New machines invented/ factory production Need to raw materials/resources for production (metals, wood, cotton, rubber, sugar, etc.)
Economic Motives European nations were going through the Industrial Revolution. Increased production = increased demand for raw materials Africa was a vast land filled with raw materials. Industrial nations began looking for new markets (groups of people to sell to) Industrialists wanted exclusive rights to sell in African markets.
Political Motives Nationalism (pride and loyalty to one’s nation) was spreading throughout Europe nations. European nations were trying to become more powerful than each other. Colonies were viewed as status symbols and sources of $ and power.
Cultural/Religious Motives Europeans were ethnocentric and believed they had a duty to their culture (religion, language, clothing, etc.) to the rest of the world. Some people went to Africa for religious reasons. Spread the Christian faith.
Great Britain Areas East Africa Gold Coast Nigeria Southern Africa Resources/ Motives Control on the Nile River region Cecil Rhodes controlled diamond production in South Africa Protect a trade route to India
France Areas West Africa North Africa Resources/Motives Wanted to control trade in this region after the abolition of the slave trade Increased authority in the Mediterranean.
Belgium Areas Central Africa “The Congo” Resources/Motives Mining (copper) Cotton Belgium did not have many colonies, but was a particularly violent colonizer.
European Government in Africa Direct Rule France, Germany Imperial power controlled all levels of government Assimilation – people of the colonies would abandon their customs and adopt those of the imperial nation Indirect Rule Great Britain British governor and a council of advisors would make colonial laws Local ruler had some power
African Resistance Many Africans resisted European rule with military force. Several wars broke out in Africa against several European nations. Successful resistance in Ethiopia (Menelik II) Despite the resistance, most Africans were no match for the Europeans. Europeans had advanced military technology.
Impacts of Imperialism Benefits New agricultural techniques were introduced Medicine Constructed roads and railroads Tried to make African products available worldwide Costs Most Africans did not accept European customs European Industry and institutions did not benefit Africans Led to conflicts between tribes Millions of Africans were killed during the resistance.