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Arthur Stewart Somatotype Mandy Plumb Department of Orthopaedics.

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Presentation on theme: "Arthur Stewart Somatotype Mandy Plumb Department of Orthopaedics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arthur Stewart Somatotype Mandy Plumb Department of Orthopaedics


3 Definition Somatotype is a physique classification system which recognises a body shape category, which necessarily falls between pre-determined end limits. It is defined as a quantified expression and description of the present morphological conformation of a person. It is independent of size, age and gender. Somatotype

4 Somatotype is a three figure reference which characterises physique and body shape. It comprises values, originally proposed on a 7- point scale, which summarise the physique, and can be plotted on the tri-polar somatochart. Somatotype

5 Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy Average value lean fat muscular slender lightheavy Somatotype Components

6 Originally proposed as a genotypic morphology rating on a 7 point scale by Sheldon (1940), drawing from earlier work of Kretschmer (1921) who classified three poles to represent extreme physique variation, and Viola (1933) which related dimensions of the thorax, trunk and limbs to a normotype Partly influenced by an alternative methodology from Parnell (1954), Heath and Carter (1967) introduced a three numeral rating somatotype which has become the most universally applied, which involved a photoscopic and anthropometric method, later to be revised in History Somatotype

7 Photoscopic Anthropometric* –somatotype rating form –computer-calculated Combined –the criterion measure Stadiometer Weighing scale Bone caliper Skin caliper Anthropometric tape Methods*Equipment required Somatotype Assessment

8 Somatotype Rating Form

9 Somatochart Central Endomorph Mesomorph Ectomorph


11 Endomorphy – Roundness or fatness, based on 3 skinfolds Independent of size Mesomorphy Mesomorphy – Musculo-skeletal robustness, based on elbow & knee breadths, and corrected girths of calf and upper arm Ectomorphy Ectomorphy – Relative fragility, based on height and weight Derived on 10 measurements Independent of size Descriptor of shape Assumes proportionality of size, development and symmetry Only relative data on composition (Heath & Carter, 1967) Anthropometric Somatotype Assessment

12 Total mass (kg) Stature (cm) Upper arm circumference (cm) Max. Calf circumference (cm) Femur breadth (cm) Humerus breadth (cm) Triceps skinfold (mm) Subscapular skinfold (mm) Supraspinale skinfold (mm) Medial calf skinfold (mm) Measurements on the Right; Larger girths in the case of Left handed subjects; mean of 2 or median of 3. Measurements Required

13 calculation Add the skinfolds at the triceps, subscapular and supraspinale sites Multiply this sum by / height This total (in mm) is X in the following calculation: Endomorphy = X X X 3 Endomorphy

14 Record height (H), humerus breadth (HB) and femur breadth (FB), max calf girth and max upper arm girth, with the arm flexed to 45º and tensed. Calculate corrected arm (AG) and calf girth (CG) by subtracting triceps and medial calf skinfolds from the respective girths. Substitute these values in the following equation: Mesomorphy = 0.858HB FB AG CG H Mesomorphy calculation

15 Record height in cm and weight in kg Divide the height by the cube root of weight to calculate the reciprocal of the ponderal index or RPI. The magnitude of the RPI determines which formula is used to calculate ectomorphy. If RPI > 40.74, Ectomorphy = 0.732RPI If < RPI < 40.74, Ectomorphy = 0.463RPI If RPI < 39.65, Ectomorphy = 0.5 calculation Ectomorphy

16 Rounding From equations - round decimal to one decimal place eg For general description, plotting and category boundaries, round to the nearest half unit eg Rating form are in nearest half units

17 Somatotype Attitudinal Distance The distance between any two somatopoints (in 3D space) - calculated in component units SAD A,B = [(endoA-endoB) 2 + (mesoA - mesoB) 2 + (ectoA - ectoB) 2 ] 0.5 where A and B are two somatotypes Somatotype Attitudinal Mean The average 3D distance between all somatoplots and their mean

18 Cardiac health Low energy cost of locomotion power:weight ratio Injury protection via diminished forces Absolute strength, injury resistance, hypothermia resistance, positive self image Absolute mass for blocking sports; Hypothermia resistance, floatation Physique advantages

19 Lack of upper body strength; risk of diminished self image Power at expense of endurance; poor heat dissipation; exercise can become obsessive in bodybuilders Low power: weight; high energy cost of locomotion; impaired heat dissipation; cardiac risk factors; low self esteem Physique disadvantages

20 Endomorphy Ectomorphy Mesomorphy Data from Stewart & Hannan, (2000) Somatotypes of 106 male athletes

21 Sumo wrestlers High jumpers Discus throwers 400m runners Early training Performance peak Athletes physiques evolve according to training status and periodisation. Variation in physique (i.e. SAM) reduces as competitive standard increases, as the athletes become increasingly selected Somatotype Convergence

22 Road racing cyclists data from Stewart & Hannan (2000) Somatotype comparison in cyclists Reference: Anthropometrica

23 Each component independently affects performance in most sports Talent identification for sporting potential of individuals Tool for matching individuals with sports which they may have advantages for Tool for determining training goals and outcomes Affects body image and self esteem The relevance of somatotype in sport Summary

24 References Anthropometrica: Norton, K & Olds, T. (Eds) (1996) University of New South Wales Press Carter J.E.L. and Heath, B.H. (1990). Somatotyping: Development and applications. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. Eston, R. & Reilly, T. (Eds) (2001) Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology lab manual, volume 1. London: Routledge

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