Presentation on theme: "Factors Affecting Fitness. The fitness of each individual is affected by a number of interrelated factors. It is these factors that determine our performance."— Presentation transcript:
Factors Affecting Fitness
The fitness of each individual is affected by a number of interrelated factors. It is these factors that determine our performance capacity. With the exception of biological factors, these factors can be controlled by the individual. Factors that the individual has control revolve around his/her lifestyle habits, and include diet and nutrition; rest and exercise; and the use of drugs. The biological factors that the individual has no control over are genetically determined characteristics such as an individual’s sex; their body type; and aerobic and anaerobic capacities.
Biological Limitations In general, the growth and development of an individual is determined by heredity. Anatomical and physiological capacities are set by genetic factors, and therefore fitness is largely predetermined, however training and a healthy lifestyle can have an effect on the achievement of fitness. Genetically-determined characteristics include: 1.Sex 2.Body Types 3.Aerobic & Anaerobic Capacities
Sex Physically, women are built differently than men – they have lighter bones, less muscle, more body fat, and more mobile joints. Females also have different weight distribution. Women tend to be much heavier around the lower area of the trunk due to a wider pelvis and fat deposits. This means that females have a lower centre-of- gravity than males, affecting the mechanical functioning of the body. The internal systems of men and women are also different. During menstruation, females can have an excessive loss of iron through bleeding, often leading to loss of energy. Women are also prone to osteoporosis, whilst pregnancy and childbirth also affects the body’s mechanical functioning. These characteristics do not prevent females from achieving fitness, but means that they often cannot achieve the same fitness levels as men.
Body Types The external appearance of the body depends on body composition and body type. There are 3 distinct body types, called somatotypes : Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy Endomorphy – characterised by roundness and softness of the body. This is the “fat” component. Mesomorphy – characterised by a V-shaped body with large bones covered in thick muscles. This is the “muscle” component. Ectomorphy – characterised by a thin, fragile body. This is the “thinness” component.
Body Types Each individual comprises all three types of somatotypes in varying amounts. A three figure rating is used to classify an individual’s body type, based on observation and measurement. Each somatotype is given a number between 1 and 7. A rating of “1” means there is little of the component, whereas a rating of “7” indicates a maximum amount of the component. A rating of 7-1-1 would indicate extreme endomorphy; 1-7-1 indicates extreme mesomorphy; whilst 1-1-7 indicates extreme ectomorphy. 7-1-1 = Endomorphy1-7-1 = Mesomorphy
Endomorphy An extreme endomorph (7-1-1) tends to exhibit the following characteristics: 1.Oval-shaped – abdomen larger than thorax 2.Shoulders are high and square 3.Short neck with little muscular definition on limbs and trunk 4.Easily gain weight It is very important for endomorphs to maintain a controlled balance between food intake and physical activity. Endomorphs are best suited to weight-supported activities such as swimming etc.
Mesomorphy An extreme mesomorph (1-7-1) tends to exhibit the following characteristics: 1.Broad shoulders 2.Large chest 3.Narrow waist 4.Muscular limbs Individuals with a mesomorphic body type tend to develop muscle quite easily, and most sportspeople tend to have a high component of mesomorphy. Mesomorphs are the physically stronger of all body types, and are best suited to explosive, power activities such as rugby and sprinting.
Ectomorphy An extreme ectomorph (1-1-7) tends to exhibit the following characteristics: 1.Narrow, rounded shoulders 2.A sunken chest 3.Long, thin limbs 4.A lack of skeletal muscle Individuals with an ectomorphic body type tend to be able to eat large quantities of food without gaining weight, however they find it hard to develop muscle. Athletes such as marathon runners and high-jumpers tend to have a body type with a large component of ectomorphy.
Somatotype Distribution Males Females Male Average Female Average “7-1-1”“1-1-7” “1-7-1” “What type of somatotype are you?”
Aerobic & Anaerobic Capacity Have you ever heard the saying that “sprinters are born not made”? Well that statement does have some scientific support. Aerobic and anaerobic capacity, as well as the proportion of fast-twitch/slow-twitch muscle fibres in the body are genetically predetermined. Your parents are largely responsible for your capacity to be an athlete. You can often see this in professional sports, with a large number of pro-athletes having one or both parents who played high level sports. Individual’s born with a large number of slow-twitch fibres will naturally have a greater capacity for endurance-activities, whilst those with a large proportion of fast- twitch fibres are more likely to achieve in aerobic type activities eg. sprinting.
Rating Body Types Using the three figure rating scale, estimate the body types of the following: 1.Yourself 2.Your parents. Is there any similarity between their body type and yours? 3.Damian Oliver (a jockey). 4.Susie Maroney (marathon swimmer) 5.Ben Cousins (AFL player) 6.Anthony Mundine (boxer) 7.Kim Clijsters (tennis player) 8.Jana Pittman (hurdler) 9.A Sumo Wrestler Does the somatotype of these athletes help them in their sport? If so, how?