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TDC130: High performance Time to Digital Converter in 130 nm Christian MESTER 2008-03-27.

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Presentation on theme: "TDC130: High performance Time to Digital Converter in 130 nm Christian MESTER 2008-03-27."— Presentation transcript:

1 TDC130: High performance Time to Digital Converter in 130 nm Christian MESTER

2 Physics Department Christian Mester 2 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Index Introduction: What is a TDC and its use Application example HPTDC implementation New TDC130 Expected resolution Current state Architecture Focus on DLL Ideas for further improvement of resolution

3 Physics Department Christian Mester 3 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 What is a TDC and its use TDCs are used to measure time (intervals) with high precision Start – stop measurement Measurement of time interval between two events: start signal – stop signal Used to measure relatively short time intervals with high precision Like a stop watch used to measure sport competitions Time tagging Measure time of occurrence of events with a given time reference Time reference (Clock) Events to be measured (Hit) Used to measure relative occurrence of many events on a defined time scale Like a normal watch Start Stop Time scale (clock) Hits

4 Physics Department Christian Mester 4 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 What is a TDC and its use Special needs for high energy physics Many thousands of channels needed want to use the same time base for many channels Rate of measurements can be very high Very high resolution Triggered mode must be integrated with TDC function: store measurements during a given interval extract only those related to an interesting event, signalled by a trigger

5 Physics Department Christian Mester 5 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 ALICE Time of Flight (TOF) 25 ps resolution channels time of flight speed of light particle

6 Physics Department Christian Mester 6 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Current Implementation (HPTDC) DLL, hit registers, RC delay and PLL implemented as full custom 0.25 µm CMOS technology 6.5 x 6.5 mm² 1 million transistors 225 ball grid array package

7 Physics Department Christian Mester 7 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Index Introduction: What is a TDC and its use Application example HPTDC implementation New TDC130 Expected resolution Current state Architecture Focus on DLL Ideas for further improvement of resolution

8 Physics Department Christian Mester 8 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Current HPTDC 100 ps bin size on 32 channels or 25 ps bin size on 8 channels 780 ps bin size in low resolution mode 102 µs dynamic range (15 bit) Max. hit rate on channels depend on other channels activity Double pulse resolution: 5 ns to 10 ns (depending on mode) New TDC130 vs. current HPTDC New TDC ps bin size on 32 channels 800 ps bin size in low resolution mode 840 µs dynamic range (20 bit) (possibly more) Higher hit rates, channels are independent Minimum double pulse resolution 2 ns Lower power consumption Lower cost

9 Physics Department Christian Mester 9 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Timing part To be submitted in May 2008 PLL DLL Hit registers 24.4 ps bin size in 32 channels If time allows: additional interpolation function TDC130: Current state

10 Physics Department Christian Mester 10 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Core architecture of TDC130 Clock (40MHz, or 80MHz) Hit[31:0] LVDS Readout PLL 1.28 GHz Phase detector, Charge pump, Filter 32 × 32 Hit register 32 delay elements+dummies

11 Physics Department Christian Mester 11 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 DLL Timing part Phase detector: bang-bang type Loop filter: Capacitor to ground Control voltage for dummies is separated using mirrors not to inject noise on the main elements control voltage Not shown: Differential to single-ended conversion between delay line and phase detector Differential to single-ended conversion before hit registers and buffers Note that the load seen by each delay element has to be the same.

12 Physics Department Christian Mester 12 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Differential delay elements With local fine adjustment to compensate mismatch effects DLL: Delay cell This works like an inductor (within a limited frequency range) Local fine adjustment to compensate for mismatch

13 Physics Department Christian Mester 13 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Monte Carlo Simulation: INL/DNL (TDC130) 25 runs, process variations only VCDL, differential-to-single-ended converters and buffers

14 Physics Department Christian Mester 14 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Monte Carlo Simulation: INL/DNL (TDC130) 25 runs, mismatch variations only VCDL, differential-to-single-ended converters and buffers

15 Physics Department Christian Mester 15 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Measurement of HPTDC: INL correction Without INL compensation After INL compensation Measurements from ALICE-TOF Effective RMS resolution: 40 ps without INL correction 17 ps with look-up table INL correction (as a fixed 40 MHz pattern has been observed)

16 Physics Department Christian Mester 16 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 How to improve the resolution? HPTDCs very high resolution mode: Interpolation using R-C delay elements and 4 normal channels per very high resolution channel ( only 8 instead of 32 channels available in very high resolution mode) TDC130: Interpolation without reducing the number of channels? Ideas: R-C networks: attenuation, low pass: slew rate deteriorates Transmission lines: potentially long, less attenuation Delay elements (like in the DLL) –Use a second DLL with slightly less (e.g. 26) delay elements than the main DLL –Let the clock signal propagate in both DLLs –Distribute the second DLLs control voltage to delay elements in the channels Interpolation factor 4 6 ps bin size

17 Physics Department Christian Mester 17 Pico-Second Timing Workshop Chicago, March 2008 Final chip General architecture (channel organization, 1 buffer per channel) fixed Will support triggered mode Readout: to be discussed Future of the development Client expectations Client involvement Availability of manpower Maintain expertise TDC130: Outlook

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