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ASYNC07 High Rate Wave-pipelined Asynchronous On-chip Bit-serial Data Link R. Dobkin, T. Liran, Y. Perelman, A. Kolodny, R. Ginosar Technion – Israel Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "ASYNC07 High Rate Wave-pipelined Asynchronous On-chip Bit-serial Data Link R. Dobkin, T. Liran, Y. Perelman, A. Kolodny, R. Ginosar Technion – Israel Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 ASYNC07 High Rate Wave-pipelined Asynchronous On-chip Bit-serial Data Link R. Dobkin, T. Liran, Y. Perelman, A. Kolodny, R. Ginosar Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Electrical Engineering Department – VLSI Lab March 12, 2007

2 ASYNC07 2 Presentation Outline Why Serial Link? Fast Asynchronous Serial Link Transmitter, Fast LEDR Encoder Receiver, Fast Toggle Circuit Channel, Current Mode Async Signaling Performance Summary

3 ASYNC07 3 Serial Link Employment Benefits Why Serial Link? Less interconnect area Less routing congestion Less coupling Less power (depends on range) The relative improvement grows with technology scaling. The example on the right refers to: Single gate delay serial link Fully-shielded parallel link with 8 gate delay clock cycle Equal bit-rate Word width N=8 Parallel Link dissipates less power Serial Link dissipates less power Technology Node [nm] Link Length [mm] Parallel Link requires less area Serial Link requires less area

4 ASYNC07 4 Serial Link Applications P2P long-range interconnect Long range NoC links Pin-limited on-chip module interfaces Presently chips are pin-limited, and that will migrate inside Cross-bar Simpler routing and congestion Communications inside many-core CMPs

5 ASYNC07 5 Serial Link – Top Structure Transition signaling instead of sampling: two-phase NRZ Level Encoded Dual Rail (LEDR) asynchronous protocol, a.k.a. data-strobe (DS) Acknowledge per word instead of per bit Wave-pipelining over channel Differential encoding (DS-DE, IEEE ) Low-latency synchronizers

6 ASYNC07 6 Encoding –Two Phase NRZ LEDR Two Phase Non-Return-to-Zero Level Encoded Dual Rail delta encoding (one transition per bit) Uncoded (B) State bit (S) Phase bit (P)

7 ASYNC07 7 Transmitter – Fast SR Approach Transition Generator Targeted Speed: One gate delay between bits

8 ASYNC07 8 Fast Asynchronous Shift Register

9 ASYNC07 9 Wave-pipelined Control Characteristics The highest speed (the single gate- delay cycle) relates to the pole of the Bode diagram This operating point results in signal degradation along the inverter chain Single Gate Delay Rate

10 ASYNC07 10 Splitter Architecture The shift-register is partitioned into M shift-registers M slower operation in each shift-register Signal is no longer degraded Single gate-delay operation is localized to output (input) stage only

11 11 Transmitter Splitter Architecture

12 ASYNC07 12 Transmitter – SPICE Simulation (65nm node) Simulations done at

13 ASYNC07 13 Receiver

14 14 Receiver Splitter Architecture

15 ASYNC07 15 Toggle Circuit Straightforward implementation (fundamental asynchronous state machine) is too slow (supports only ~1.5 gate delay cycle) Novel toggle: Single gate delay operation support Internal and output latches

16 ASYNC07 16 Channel Four transmission lines (DS-DE) High metal layers utilization Metals 5-8 of 65nm process RLC modeled Careful layout Small crosstalk Small relative variations

17 ASYNC07 17 SSPPSP LEDR Interconnect Layout

18 ASYNC07 18 Differential Channel Driver and Receiver Current mode differential low-swing signaling Currents in opposite directions Controllable current return path P / S

19 ASYNC07 19 Channel Characteristic Impedance Based on data from BPTM. Drawn for constant R, L, C Z depends on F Voltage changes with F Fast changes voltage drifts The drifts bound the operating speed F Z S S

20 ASYNC07 20 Channel Driver with Adaptive Control Compensates for Z changes Turned on for low frequencies Adaptive Control Inertial Delay

21 ASYNC07 21 Adaptive Control – Simulation Example SPICE simulation setup: 65nm technology, 4mm range, 67Gbps data rate RLC modeled channel (using Raphael-like three-dimensional field solver) Adaptive control is turned on only for low frequencies

22 ASYNC07 22 Channel Receiver Amplifier

23 ASYNC07 23 Performance SPICE simulation show correct operation at target data cycle of 15ps (65nm technology node) Power for 67Gbps 4mm 16-bit word link under 100% utilization: Total power: 150mW Channel differential pair: 18mW Leakage power: 4mW (due to low V T transistors employment) Power reduction Deeper split ( M power reduction) Circuit optimizations Circuit shut down during idle states

24 ASYNC07 24 In-Die Variations Splitter architecture High-speed operation localized to input and output stages High-speed components design and verification Monte-Carlo simulations (>5 ) 26 PVT Corners Iterative design with legging and sizing for sensitive transistors Asynchronous structure Supports any slow down Minimal time separation between successive bits must be provided!

25 ASYNC07 25 Summary High speed Serial Link requires special circuits: Fast serializers and de-serializers Wave-pipelined control Splitter architecture: Long word transmission Power reduction On-the-fly LEDR encoding Adaptive control for fast asynchronous signals handling Low crosstalk interconnect layout Single FO4 inverter delay data cycle support (15ps on 65nm process, 67 Gbps) The Serial Link preferred over Parallel Link thanks to: Reduced Interconnect and Active area Easier routing, less coupling Reduced power for long on-chip interconnects

26 ASYNC07 26 The End Thank you


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