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Chapter 12 – Part 2 Nutrition Basics

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1 Chapter 12 – Part 2 Nutrition Basics
Essential Nutrients and Nutritional Guidelines 1

2 What is a Nutrient? A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. You need over 50 nutrients, which can be divided into six groups. Water Carbohydrates Lipids (Fats) Proteins Vitamins Minerals

3 Nutrients have three general functions in your body.


5 The Six Classifications of Nutrients
Water Carbohydrates Fats Protein Vitamins Minerals Sugars Starches Cellulose 5

6 These Three Nutrients Have Calories
*Carbohydrates *Fats *Proteins 6

7 What is the Definition of a Calorie?
The unit used to measure the energy value of food. 7

8 The Energy-Yielding Nutrients
Carbohydrate Fat Protein

9 Non-Energy Nutrients Vitamins Minerals Water

10 Variables which affect nutrient needs:
1. Age 2. Gender 3. Activity level 4. Climate 5. Health 6. State of nutrition 10

11 1. Carbohydrates 11

12 Function Supplies energy Provides fiber Help the body digest fats 12

13 Sources Sugars: honey, jam, molasses, candy, table sugar
Fiber: fruits, vegetables, whole grains Starch: breads, cereals, pasta 13

14 2. Vitamins 14

15 Vitamins are divided into
Function Vitamins are divided into two main groups. 15

16 are stored in fatty tissues of the body
Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fats are stored in fatty tissues of the body 5.01C Nutrients

17 Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water are not stored in the body
5.01C Nutrients

18 3. Minerals 4.01C Nutrients 18 18

19 Used in minute amounts only.
Become part of the body’s bones, tissues, and fluids. 5.01C Nutrients

20 4. Fats 20

21 Function Supply energy Carry fat-soluble vitamins Insulate the body
Protect organs Provide essential fatty acids 21

22 Sources Types of Fats Saturated: dairy products, meats, lard, coconut and palm oils Unsaturated: fish, nuts, vegetable oils 22

23 Cholesterol The fat-like substance found in body cells. This substance clogs arteries. 23

24 5. Proteins 24

25 Functions Builds and repairs muscles and cell tissues
Helps the body make important substances Regulates body processes Supplies energy 25

26 Sources Complete proteins:
dairy products, eggs, fish, meat and poultry. Incomplete proteins: beans, grains and nuts. 26

27 6. Water 27

28 Function Aids in digestion Aids in cell growth and maintenance
Facilitates chemical reactions Lubricates joints and cells Regulates body temperature 28

29 Sources Liquids Food Breakdown of energy nutrients 29

30 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
AIM FOR FITNESS . . . Aim for a healthy weight. Be physically active each day.

31 BUILD A HEALTHY BASE . . . Let the Pyramid guide your food choices. Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. Keep food safe to eat.

32 CHOOSE SENSIBLY . . . ♦Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat
and cholesterol and moderate in total fat. ♦Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars. ♦Choose and prepare foods with less salt. ♦If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.

33 Food For Thought Avoid excesses of some vitamins and minerals.
To promote good nutrition and maintain good health: Eat a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid. Drink plenty of water Daily exercise Seek the advice of a physician or dietician before taking supplements 4.01C Nutrients 33

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