2 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one anotherHow is it constructed?
3 PhysiologyPhysiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery or organ systemsHow does it work?
4 Levels of Structural Organization Chemical – atoms combined to form moleculesCellular – cells are made of moleculesTissue – consists of similar types of cells
5 Organ – made up of different types of tissues Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely togetherOrganismal – made up of the organ systems
6 Levels of Structural Organization Smooth muscle cellMoleculesCellular level Cells are made up of molecules2Atoms1Chemical level Atoms combine to form moleculesSmooth muscle tissueHeart3Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cellsCardiovascular systemBlood vesselsEpithelial tissueSmooth muscle tissueBlood vessel (organ)6Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systemsConnective tissue4Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues5Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closelyFigure 1.1
7 OrientationOrientation is the position of something relative to some point.The human body is oriented intoDirectionsLandmarksPlanesCavitiesQuadrantsRegionsSystems
8 Directional TermsSuperior or cranial toward the head end of the body; upper (example, the hand is part of the superior extremity). Inferior or caudal away from the head; lower (example, the foot is part of the inferior extremity).
9 Anterior or ventral front (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg). Posterior or dorsal back (example, the shoulder blades are located on the posterior side of the body).
10 Medial toward the midline of the body (example, the middle toe is located at the medial side of the foot).Lateral away from the midline of the body (example, the little toe is located at the lateral side of the foot).
11 Proximal toward or nearest the trunk or the point of origin of a part (example, the proximal end of the femur joins with the pelvic bone).Distal away from or farthest from the trunk or the point or origin of a part (example, the hand is located at the distal end of the forearm).
12 Superficial toward the surface Deep away from the surface Cephaladtoward the headCaudaltoward the tailbone
19 Abdominopelvic Cavity The abdominopelvic cavity is lined by the peritoneumThe abdominal cavity extends from the diaphragm to the superior margins of the pelvisliver, stomach, spleen and most of the large intestine
20 Abdominopelvic Cavity The pelvic cavity is bordered by the pelvis, with a floor of musclereproductive organs, urinary bladder and the final portion of the large intestine
22 Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots epi- upon, abovehypo – belowgastric – stomachiliac – superior part of the hip bonechondro – cartilagelumbus – loinumbilicus - navelDecipher the following words:HypochondriacEpigastricHypogastric
23 Body Systems See the handout that describes the 11 body systems. Learn the function and organs found in each system.
24 Organ Systems Interrelationships Organ systems work together to carry necessary life functions.For exampleDigestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen
25 Necessary Life Functions Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the externalCellular level – accomplished by plasma membranesOrganismal level – accomplished by the skin
26 Movement – locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility Responsiveness – ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to themDigestion – breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
27 Metabolism – all the chemical reactions that occur in the body Excretion – removal of wastes from the bodyReproduction – cellular and organismal levelsCellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cellsOrganismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person
28 Growth – increase in size of a body part or of the organism
29 HomeostasisHomeostasis is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside worldThe internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium
30 The nervous system and the endocrine system work together to maintain homeostasis.
31 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms The variable produces a change in the bodyThe three interdependent components of control mechanisms are:
32 Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli) Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintainedEffector – provides the means to respond to the stimulus
33 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms 3Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to4Output: Information sent along efferent pathway toControl centerEffectorReceptor (sensor)2Change detected by receptor5Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasisStimulus: Produces change in variable1ImbalanceVariable (in homeostasis)ImbalanceFigure 1.4
34 Negative FeedbackIn negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulusExample: Regulation of blood glucose levels