3 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one anotherGross or macroscopicMicroscopicCytology – study of the cellHistology – study of tissuesPhysiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machineryFunction always reflects structureWhat a structure can do depends on its specific form
4 Considers the operation of specific organ systems PhysiologyConsiders the operation of specific organ systemsRenal – kidney functionNeurophysiology – workings of the nervous systemCardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vesselsFocuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level
5 Levels of Structural Organization Chemical – atoms combined to form moleculesCellular – cells are made of moleculesTissue – consists of similar types of cellsOrgan – made up of different types of tissuesOrgan system – consists of different organs that work closely togetherOrganismal – made up of the organ systems
6 Levels of Structural Organization 124563Smooth muscle cellMoleculesAtomsSmoothmuscletissueEpithelialHeartBloodvesselsConnectivevessel(organ)CardiovascularsystemCellular levelCells are made up ofmolecules.Tissue levelTissues consist ofsimilar types of cells.Organ levelOrgans are made upof different typesof tissues.Organ system levelOrgan systems consist ofdifferent organs thatwork together closely.Organismal levelThe human organismis made up of manyorgan systems.Chemical levelAtoms combine toform molecules.Figure 1.1
7 HomeostasisHomeostasis – ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside worldThe internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibriumChemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis
8 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Variables produce a change in the bodyThe three interdependent components of control mechanisms:Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintainedEffector – provides the means to respond to stimuli
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