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Georgia State Government. WARM-UP 1.How many Constitutions has Georgia had? - When was the first state Constitution approved? - When was the first state.

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Presentation on theme: "Georgia State Government. WARM-UP 1.How many Constitutions has Georgia had? - When was the first state Constitution approved? - When was the first state."— Presentation transcript:

1 Georgia State Government

2 WARM-UP 1.How many Constitutions has Georgia had? - When was the first state Constitution approved? - When was the first state Constitution approved? - When was the last Georgia constitution approved? - When was the last Georgia constitution approved? 2.What is the purpose of Georgia government? 3.What is the largest branch of State government and who is the head of it? USE PAGE 530

3 Question: What is a Constitution? Answer: A Constitution is a written plan for how a government is supposed to operate or work… Both the United States and Each Individual States have a constitution…

4 Georgias Constitution Georgia adopted its first state constitution in 1777 just after the Colonies declared themselves free from Great Britain. Georgia has had 10 State Constitutions The Current one was created in 1983.SS8CG1a

5 The Preamble to the State Constitution reads… To perpetuate the principles of free government, insure justice for all, preserve peace, promote the interest and happiness of the Citizens and of the family, and to transmit to posterity the enjoyment of liberty, we the people of Georgia, relying on the protection and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish this ConstitutionThe Preamble to the State Constitution reads… To perpetuate the principles of free government, insure justice for all, preserve peace, promote the interest and happiness of the Citizens and of the family, and to transmit to posterity the enjoyment of liberty, we the people of Georgia, relying on the protection and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish this Constitution

6 Georgias Constitution GeorgiasGeorgias Constitution states that All Government, of Right, Originates with the people, is founded upon their will only, and is instituted for the good of the whole. Public officers are the trustees and servants of the people and are at all times amenable to them.SS8CG1a

7 Georgias Constitution This means that the Government is founded by Permission of the people, and those officials in government are accountable to serve us and our needs as state citizens.This means that the Government is founded by Permission of the people, and those officials in government are accountable to serve us and our needs as state citizens. This concept is called popular sovereignty.This concept is called popular sovereignty. - The fact that true governmental power is derived from the people… - The fact that true governmental power is derived from the people…

8 Separation of Powers There are Three Main powers of Government… -Legislative – Making the Laws -Executive – Enforcing or Carrying out the Laws -Judicial – Interpreting the law and judging criminals according to it.There are Three Main powers of Government… -Legislative – Making the Laws -Executive – Enforcing or Carrying out the Laws -Judicial – Interpreting the law and judging criminals according to it. It used to be that Kings and other types of Dictatorships would do all three of these powers by themselves.It used to be that Kings and other types of Dictatorships would do all three of these powers by themselves.SS8CG1b

9 Separation of Powers The United States (and Georgia) was one of the few Societies in history to start a government with these powers separated.The United States (and Georgia) was one of the few Societies in history to start a government with these powers separated. Now many nations use this system because it works.Now many nations use this system because it works. Separation of Powers helps governments from infringing on the peoples rights.Separation of Powers helps governments from infringing on the peoples rights.SS8CG1b

10 Separation of Powers Georgias State Government Works similar to the Federal/National Government The Legislative Branch is called the General Assembly. It is Bicameral with a… -State Senate (56 members) and a -State House of Representatives (180 members). Each member has a 2 year term.

11 Separation of Powers The Executive Branch is headed by the Governor who serves a 4 year term. The Judicial Branch is headed by the Supreme Court of Georgia, Justices are elected.

12 Checks and Balances In Both the state and federal governments, there is a concept of Checks and BalancesIn Both the state and federal governments, there is a concept of Checks and Balances This means that each branch of government has some power over another branch of government too keep each branch from becoming too powerful.This means that each branch of government has some power over another branch of government too keep each branch from becoming too powerful. SS8CG1b

13 Checks and Balances For Example… (In the Georgia State Government) - The Executive Branch can Veto bills sent to it by the Legislative branch. It can also appoint court justices when they resign or die. -The Legislative branch Can Impeach officials, It can override a veto, it can confirm those people appointed to office by the governor, and it can propose constitutional changes. -The Judicial branch can rule actions of the governor or Laws made by the general Assembly UnconstitutionalFor Example… (In the Georgia State Government) - The Executive Branch can Veto bills sent to it by the Legislative branch. It can also appoint court justices when they resign or die. -The Legislative branch Can Impeach officials, It can override a veto, it can confirm those people appointed to office by the governor, and it can propose constitutional changes. -The Judicial branch can rule actions of the governor or Laws made by the general Assembly Unconstitutional SS8CG1b

14 Roles of Citizens under Georgias Government CitizensCitizens have rights… These Rights are given to you by the U.S. and State Constitutions. Among them are… - Free Speech - Freedom of Religion - Freedom of the Press - Right to keep and bare arms - Right to a speedy, fair, and public trial. SS8CG1c

15 Roles of Citizens under Georgias Government WithWith Rights comes Responsibilities… - Voting – Though it is a right, it is also the responsibility of a free citizen. It is the responsibility to research every office and issue you vote for. -Paying Taxes- It is every citizens Duty to pay taxes to the Federal, State, and Local government. -Jury Duty- For our court systems to be fair, you may be called to participate on a jury -Draft- All young men at the age of 18 must register for the draft for military serviceSS8CG1c

16 Roles of Citizens under Georgias Government ToTo vote in Georgia, one must be… -18 years Old -A Citizen of the United States - a Legal resident of the county in which you reside VotersVoters May join a Political Party, which is a group of voters who have like minded issues. SS8CG1

17 Georgias Legislative Branch Georgias Legislative branch is called the General Assembly.Georgias Legislative branch is called the General Assembly. It is made up of two houses (bicameral) -The Senate (56) -The House of Representatives. (180)It is made up of two houses (bicameral) -The Senate (56) -The House of Representatives. (180) To be in the State House of Representatives, you must be 21 years old, Live in Georgia for 2 years, and live in the district you represent.To be in the State House of Representatives, you must be 21 years old, Live in Georgia for 2 years, and live in the district you represent. SS8CG2 a

18 Georgias Legislative Branch To be in the State Senate you must be 25 years old, Live in Georgia for 2 years, and live in the district you represent.To be in the State Senate you must be 25 years old, Live in Georgia for 2 years, and live in the district you represent. Both State Senators and Representatives serve two year terms.Both State Senators and Representatives serve two year terms. SS8CG2 a

19 The Georgia Generally Assembly meets for nearly two months every year beginning in Late January. Their Primary duties are to pass laws and passing the final version of Georgias budget. Most of the Work done in Georgias General Assembly takes place in committees. Georgias Legislative Branch SS8CG2b

20 The House of Representatives has 36 committees. The leader of the House of Representatives is called the Speaker of the House. The Majority leader represents the Majority Political Party while the Minority leader represents the minority political party. The Floor Leader promotes the causes of the Governor Georgias Legislative Branch SS8CGb

21 Georgias Senate also is made up of Committees, of which, there are 26. The Leader of the Senate is called the President of the Senate -Georgias Lieutenant Governor is President of the Senate There is also a President Pro Tempore of the Senate. This is the leader of the Majority Party. Georgias Legislative Branch SS8CGb

22 1.What qualifications must one be in order to run for The State Senate? 2.How long does the Georgia General Assembly meet for every year? 3.What are the main duties of the Georgia General Assembly? 4.Both the State House and State Senate are made up of ______________. Ticket Out the Door

23 1.What Principle of Government means the Government gets its powers from the people? 2.What Principle of Government means that the powers of Government are divided? 3.What principle of government keeps each branch from becoming too powerful? Ticket Out the Door

24 Write and Answer these Questions from the How a bill becomes law section of page Who can propose an idea for a law? Who can propose the bill for consideration by the General Assembly? 2.Bills can begin in either house except for bills that have to do with ________ start in the House of Representatives? 3.What happens when one house passes a slightly different bill than the other house?

25 The Legislative Process A potential law (before it is passed) is called a Bill. A Bill goes through several steps before it becomes a law…A potential law (before it is passed) is called a Bill. A Bill goes through several steps before it becomes a law… 1.Drafting 2.Introduction 3.Committee Consideration 4.Floor Consideration, 5.Then to other house Committee 6. Other House Floor 7.Conference Committee 8.Governor Consideration 9. If Necessary, vote to Override the veto SS8CG2 c (If Necessary)

26 Georgias Executive Branch Georgias Executive Branch is headed up by the Governor. His second in command is called the Lieutenant Governor. (This is sort of like the Vice President) SS8CG3 a

27 Georgias Executive Branch To run for either the Governorship or the Lieutenant Governorship one must be 30 years old, a U.S. Citizen for at least 15 years, and a resident of Georgia for at least 6 years. SS8CG3 a

28 Georgias Executive Branch The Governor can be elected to two- four year terms. The Lt. Governor can serve an unlimited amount of 4-year terms. SS8CG3 a

29 More on Georgias Executive Branch Powers of the Governor Appoints people to lead executive departmentsAppoints people to lead executive departments Writes the first draft of the state budget.Writes the first draft of the state budget. Has to make a State of the State speech every year.Has to make a State of the State speech every year. Can Pardon Criminals.Can Pardon Criminals.

30 More on Georgias Executive Branch Powers of the Governor Leader of the executive BranchLeader of the executive Branch Commander and Chief or Georgias military forces. (Georgia National Guard)Commander and Chief or Georgias military forces. (Georgia National Guard) Veto LegislationVeto Legislation Signs bills into lawSigns bills into law

31 More on Georgias Executive Branch Powers of the Lieutenant Governor Serves as Governor if the current governor dies or is too sick to carry out his duties.Serves as Governor if the current governor dies or is too sick to carry out his duties. As president of the senate, he decides committee memberships and chooses committee chair-persons.As president of the senate, he decides committee memberships and chooses committee chair-persons. Georgias Lt. Governor Casey Cagle

32 Executive Departments The executive branch is also made up of executive departments.The executive branch is also made up of executive departments. Department of Agriculture, the Insurance Commissioner and Department of Labor all have elected officials elected by the people.Department of Agriculture, the Insurance Commissioner and Department of Labor all have elected officials elected by the people. Insurance Commissioner John Oxendine

33 Executive Departments The Department of Corrections, Department of Defense, Department of Education, Department of Natural Resources, and the Department of Transportation all have officials appointed by the governor.The Department of Corrections, Department of Defense, Department of Education, Department of Natural Resources, and the Department of Transportation all have officials appointed by the governor.

34 Executive Departments State Attorney General – This person is the Chief Lawyer for the state.State Attorney General – This person is the Chief Lawyer for the state. Commissioner of Agriculture – This person is Head of the Agriculture department. He/she helps maintain farmers markets, attract Farming- Related businesses to the state and inspects farms and farming related products.Commissioner of Agriculture – This person is Head of the Agriculture department. He/she helps maintain farmers markets, attract Farming- Related businesses to the state and inspects farms and farming related products. Commissioner of Labor – This person is head of the Labor department. They regulate the health and safety of workers and enforce state labor laws.Commissioner of Labor – This person is head of the Labor department. They regulate the health and safety of workers and enforce state labor laws.SS8CG3b,c

35 Executive Departments Commissioner of Insurance – This person regulates the insurance companies and says which ones can operate in Georgia.Commissioner of Insurance – This person regulates the insurance companies and says which ones can operate in Georgia. Public Service Commissioners – These are people who regulate utilities in Georgia, such as phone, cable, electricity and water.Public Service Commissioners – These are people who regulate utilities in Georgia, such as phone, cable, electricity and water. Secretary of State – This persons department maintains official records, supervises elections, appoints examining boards, grants corporate charters, and regulates stocks and bonds in Georgia.Secretary of State – This persons department maintains official records, supervises elections, appoints examining boards, grants corporate charters, and regulates stocks and bonds in Georgia. State School Superintendant - this is the head of the schools for our state.State School Superintendant - this is the head of the schools for our state.SS8CG3b,c

36 State Agencies There are over thirty state Agencies and Boards…There are over thirty state Agencies and Boards… Most of the members of these state agencies are appointed by the Governor or Commissioners of executive departments.Most of the members of these state agencies are appointed by the Governor or Commissioners of executive departments. Examples of Boards and Agencies are the… -State Board of Pardons and Paroles -the Board of Natural Resources -the State Personnel Board.Examples of Boards and Agencies are the… -State Board of Pardons and Paroles -the Board of Natural Resources -the State Personnel Board.SS8CG3b,c

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38 Because Georgias government is involved in many legal proceedings, it needs legal advice and guidance. Which Official of the Executive branch provides this advice? a)Secretary of State b)Lieutenant Governor c)Commissioner of Labor d)Attorney General

39 Which office of the executive branch maintains state records and supervises elections? a)Department of Community Affairs b)State Board of Transportation c)Department of Labor d)State Department (Secretary of State)

40 Which Branch of the State Government sees that the state laws are implemented? a)Commission b)Executive c)Legislative d)Judicial

41 According to Georgias Constitution, how many consecutive years can Georgias Lieutenant governor serve in that capacity? a)4 Years b)8 Years c)16 years d)Undefined number of years

42 Which of the following accurately describes the powers of the Georgia General Assembly? a)It has law-making powers over all areas of Georgia involving money, taxes,revenue, and appropriations. b) It has law-making powers over all areas not Specifically Stated in the U.S. Constitution. c)It has sole power over some areas and split power with the U.S. Government in other areas. d)It has powers specifically designated in both the Georgia and U.S. Constitutions

43 The Judicial Branch in Georgia SS8CG4a,b,c,d The Georgia Supreme Court is the Highest State Court in the State of Georgia.The Georgia Supreme Court is the Highest State Court in the State of Georgia. There are two types of Courts… -Trial Courts - Appellate courtsThere are two types of Courts… -Trial Courts - Appellate courts A Trial Court is where a criminals action or a lawsuit may be tried.A Trial Court is where a criminals action or a lawsuit may be tried.

44 The Judicial Branch in Georgia SS8CG4a,b,c,d An Appellate Court is where a previous case is appealed.An Appellate Court is where a previous case is appealed. Jurisdiction = is a term meaning which cases a court can try. This is because of the type of case, and the geographic location.Jurisdiction = is a term meaning which cases a court can try. This is because of the type of case, and the geographic location. Judges may be appointed, or Chosen in partisan and non- partisan electionsJudges may be appointed, or Chosen in partisan and non- partisan elections

45 Civil and Criminal Cases A Civil Case is where one person sues another for a claim of having done them wrong. -The person suing is the Plaintiff -The Person getting sued is the defendantA Civil Case is where one person sues another for a claim of having done them wrong. -The person suing is the Plaintiff -The Person getting sued is the defendant Most Civil Cases are settled out of court, and those found guilty never have to go to jail.Most Civil Cases are settled out of court, and those found guilty never have to go to jail.

46 Civil and Criminal Cases The Second kind of case is a criminal case. This is where someone accused of breaking the law is put on trial by the law enforcement agencies.The Second kind of case is a criminal case. This is where someone accused of breaking the law is put on trial by the law enforcement agencies. The Governments lawyer is called the prosecutor.The Governments lawyer is called the prosecutor.

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50 Which Branch of State Government has the main responsibility of writing the laws? a)Legislative b)Executive c)Judicial d)Federal

51 Which elected state official controls the flow of federal and state education funding? a)State Attorney General b)State School Superintendant c)Labor Commissioner d)Secretary of State

52 The division of the three powers of government into three branches to create a limited government is called… a)Federalism b)Separation of Powers c)Checks and balances d)Popular Sovereignty

53 Adult Justice System Persons accused of a crime must goes through these steps…Persons accused of a crime must goes through these steps… ArrestedArrested Arraignment - The Police bring the accused before the judge to tell why he/she has been arrestedArraignment - The Police bring the accused before the judge to tell why he/she has been arrested Grand Jury – This is a group of people who determines if there is enough evidence for the accused to stand trial.Grand Jury – This is a group of people who determines if there is enough evidence for the accused to stand trial. Jury trialJury trial SentencingSentencingSS8CG4c

54 Settling Disputes Peacefully Filing a lawsuit against someone is not always the best way to handle a dispute peacefully. Below are other ways… Mediation – A Neutral third person meets with all sides and helps them settle the dispute.Mediation – A Neutral third person meets with all sides and helps them settle the dispute. Arbitration – A Neutral Third Person called an arbitrator meets with both sides and the arbitrator makes a legally binding decisionArbitration – A Neutral Third Person called an arbitrator meets with both sides and the arbitrator makes a legally binding decision Compromise – Each of the disputing parties gives up something to live in peaceCompromise – Each of the disputing parties gives up something to live in peaceSS8CG4d

55 Settling Disputes Peacefully Filing a lawsuit against someone is not always the best way to handle a dispute peacefully. Below are other ways… Negotiation – The Process of giving up an issue with the intention of resolving it.Negotiation – The Process of giving up an issue with the intention of resolving it. Collaboration - occurs when members of opposing parties meet together to find common ground.Collaboration - occurs when members of opposing parties meet together to find common ground. Non-Violence – to seek change with peaceful protestNon-Violence – to seek change with peaceful protestSS8CG4d

56 The Juvenile Justice System On any given day, 2,500 children are locked up in Georgia because of Criminal Activity.On any given day, 2,500 children are locked up in Georgia because of Criminal Activity. Juveniles are Citizens under the age of 17Juveniles are Citizens under the age of 17 Juveniles have to follow all other Federal, State and Local Laws, but have a special status under the law.Juveniles have to follow all other Federal, State and Local Laws, but have a special status under the law. A Juveniles Status can mean more lenient sentencing, but it also means that you have to obey some laws that adults dont.A Juveniles Status can mean more lenient sentencing, but it also means that you have to obey some laws that adults dont.

57 Types of Offenses There are two types of offenses…There are two types of offenses… 1.A Status Offense (a.k.a. Unruly Behavior) is one where the Juvenile commits a crime that is only a crime for a Juvenile. Ex: Truancy, Disobeys Caregivers, Curfew Violations etc.. 2.A Delinquent Act is a crime committed by a child that would also be a crime if an adult did the same thing… Ex: Rape, Murder, Drugs etc. Children can be tried as an adult for serious crimes.Children can be tried as an adult for serious crimes.

58 Juvenile Courts Juvenile Courts exist in every county and have three purposes…Juvenile Courts exist in every county and have three purposes… 1.To help protect the well being of Children 2.To make sure that any child coming under the jurisdiction of the court receive the care, protection and control that they need. 3.To provide for children that are removed from their homes. SS8CG6 a,b,c,d

59 Steps in the Juvenile Justice Process 1.Intake – A juvenile is turned over to an Intake Officer. 2.Detention – When a Juvenile is detained, a probable cause hearing must be held within 72 hours. 3.Formal Hearing – has two parts 1) Adjudicatory Hearing – Actual Trial 2) Dispositional Hearing – Sentencing Phase 4.Sentencing 5.Appeals

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62 Which Constitutional Concept means that governments true power comes from the people it governs? a) C hecks and Balances b) P opular Sovereignty c) S eparation of Powers d) F ederalism

63 A Juvenile accused of assault and battery has committed a… a)M isdemeanor b)S tatus Offense c)D elinquent Act d)U nruly Behavior

64 The division of the three powers of government into three branches to create a limited government is called… a)F ederalism b)S eparation of Powers c)C hecks and balances d)P opular Sovereignty

65 Both houses of the Georgia General Assembly are organized into this… In order to study bills more closely and take public comment on them… a) C ommittees b) F ederal Republics c)P olitical Parties d)S ecretaries


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