2WARM-UP How many Constitutions has Georgia had? USE PAGE 530How many Constitutions has Georgia had?- When was the first state Constitution approved?- When was the last Georgia constitution approved?What is the purpose of Georgia government?What is the largest branch of State government and who is the head of it?
3Question: What is a Constitution? Answer: A Constitution is a written plan for how a government is supposed to operate or work…Both the United States and Each Individual States have a constitution…
4Georgia’s Constitution SS8CG1aGeorgia adopted its first state constitution in 1777 just after the Colonies declared themselves free from Great Britain.Georgia has had 10 State ConstitutionsThe Current one was created in 1983.
5Georgia’s Constitution The Preamble to the State Constitution reads… “To perpetuate the principles of free government, insure justice for all, preserve peace, promote the interest and happiness of the Citizens and of the family, and to transmit to posterity the enjoyment of liberty, we the people of Georgia, relying on the protection and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish this Constitution”
6Georgia’s Constitution SS8CG1aGeorgia’s Constitution states that “All Government, of Right, Originates with the people, is founded upon their will only, and is instituted for the good of the whole. Public officers are the trustees and servants of the people and are at all times amenable to them.”
7Georgia’s Constitution This means that the Government is founded by Permission of the people, and those officials in government are accountable to serve us and our needs as state citizens.This concept is called “popular sovereignty.”- The fact that true governmental power is derived from the people…
8Separation of PowersSS8CG1bThere are Three Main powers of Government… -Legislative – Making the Laws -Executive – Enforcing or Carrying out the Laws -Judicial – Interpreting the law and judging criminals according to it.It used to be that Kings and other types of Dictatorships would do all three of these powers by themselves.
9Now many nations use this system because it works. Separation of PowersSS8CG1bThe United States (and Georgia) was one of the few Societies in history to start a government with these powers separated.Now many nations use this system because it works.Separation of Powers helps governments from infringing on the people’s rights.
10Separation of PowersGeorgia’s State Government Works similar to the Federal/National GovernmentThe Legislative Branch is called the General Assembly. It is Bicameral with a… -State Senate (56 members) and a -State House of Representatives (180 members).Each member has a 2 year term.
11Separation of PowersThe Executive Branch is headed by the Governor who serves a 4 year term.The Judicial Branch is headed by the Supreme Court of Georgia, Justices are elected.
12Checks and BalancesSS8CG1bIn Both the state and federal governments, there is a concept of “Checks and Balances”This means that each branch of government has some power over another branch of government too keep each branch from becoming too powerful.
13Checks and BalancesSS8CG1bFor Example… (In the Georgia State Government) -The Executive Branch can Veto bills sent to it by the Legislative branch. It can also appoint court justices when they resign or die. -The Legislative branch Can Impeach officials, It can override a veto, it can confirm those people appointed to office by the governor, and it can propose constitutional changes. -The Judicial branch can rule actions of the governor or Laws made by the general Assembly Unconstitutional
14Roles of Citizens under Georgia’s Government SS8CG1cCitizens have rights… These Rights are given to you by the U.S. and State Constitutions. Among them are… - Free Speech - Freedom of Religion - Freedom of the Press - Right to keep and bare arms - Right to a speedy, fair, and public trial.
15Roles of Citizens under Georgia’s Government SS8CG1cWith Rights comes Responsibilities… - Voting – Though it is a right, it is also the responsibility of a free citizen. It is the responsibility to research every office and issue you vote for. -Paying Taxes- It is every citizens Duty to pay taxes to the Federal, State, and Local government. -Jury Duty- For our court systems to be fair, you may be called to participate on a jury -Draft- All young men at the age of 18 must register for the draft for military service
16Roles of Citizens under Georgia’s Government SS8CG1To vote in Georgia, one must be… -18 years Old -A Citizen of the United States - a Legal resident of the county in which you resideVoters May join a Political Party, which is a group of voters who have like minded issues.
17Georgia’s Legislative Branch SS8CG2 aGeorgia’s Legislative branch is called the General Assembly.It is made up of two houses (bicameral) -The Senate (56) -The House of Representatives. (180)To be in the State House of Representatives, you must be 21 years old, Live in Georgia for 2 years, and live in the district you represent.
18Georgia’s Legislative Branch SS8CG2 aTo be in the State Senate you must be 25 years old, Live in Georgia for 2 years, and live in the district you represent.Both State Senators and Representatives serve two year terms.
19Georgia’s Legislative Branch SS8CG2bGeorgia’s Legislative BranchThe Georgia Generally Assembly meets for nearly two months every year beginning in Late January.Their Primary duties are to pass laws and passing the final version of Georgia’s budget.Most of the Work done in Georgia’s General Assembly takes place in committees.
20Georgia’s Legislative Branch SS8CGbGeorgia’s Legislative BranchThe House of Representatives has 36 committees.The leader of the House of Representatives is called the Speaker of the House.The Majority leader represents the Majority Political Party while the Minority leader represents the minority political party.The “Floor Leader” promotes the causes of the Governor
21Georgia’s Legislative Branch SS8CGbGeorgia’s Legislative BranchGeorgia’s Senate also is made up of Committees, of which, there are 26.The Leader of the Senate is called the “President of the Senate” -Georgia’s Lieutenant Governor is President of the SenateThere is also a President Pro Tempore of the Senate. This is the leader of the Majority Party.
22What qualifications must one be in order to run for The State Senate? How long does the Georgia General Assembly meet for every year?What are the main duties of the Georgia General Assembly?Both the State House and State Senate are made up of ______________.Ticket Out the Door
23What Principle of Government means the Government gets its powers from the people? What Principle of Government means that the powers of Government are divided?What principle of government keeps each branch from becoming too powerful?Ticket Out the Door
24Write and Answer these Questions from the How a bill becomes law section of page 540 Who can propose an idea for a law? Who can propose the bill for consideration by the General Assembly?Bills can begin in either house except for bills that have to do with ________ start in the House of Representatives?What happens when one house passes a slightly different bill than the other house?
25The Legislative Process SS8CG2 cA potential law (before it is passed) is called a Bill. A Bill goes through several steps before it becomes a law…DraftingIntroductionCommittee ConsiderationFloor Consideration,Then to “other house Committee”Other House FloorConference CommitteeGovernor ConsiderationIf Necessary, vote to Override the veto(If Necessary)(If Necessary)
26Georgia’s Executive Branch SS8CG3 aGeorgia’s Executive Branch is headed up by the Governor.His second in command is called the Lieutenant Governor. (This is sort of like the Vice President)
27Georgia’s Executive Branch SS8CG3 aTo run for either the Governorship or the Lieutenant Governorship one must be 30 years old, a U.S. Citizen for at least 15 years, and a resident of Georgia for at least 6 years.
28Georgia’s Executive Branch SS8CG3 aThe Governor can be elected to two-four year terms.The Lt. Governor can serve an unlimited amount of 4-year terms.
29More on Georgia’s Executive Branch Powers of the GovernorAppoints people to lead executive departmentsWrites the first draft of the state budget.Has to make a “State of the State” speech every year.Can “Pardon” Criminals.
30More on Georgia’s Executive Branch Powers of the GovernorLeader of the executive BranchCommander and Chief or Georgia’s military forces. (Georgia National Guard)Veto LegislationSigns bills into law
31More on Georgia’s Executive Branch Powers of the Lieutenant GovernorServes as Governor if the current governor dies or is too sick to carry out his duties.As president of the senate, he decides committee memberships and chooses committee chair-persons.Georgia’s Lt. Governor Casey Cagle
32Executive Departments The executive branch is also made up of executive departments.Department of Agriculture, the Insurance Commissioner and Department of Labor all have elected officials elected by the people.Insurance Commissioner John Oxendine
33Executive Departments The Department of Corrections, Department of Defense, Department of Education, Department of Natural Resources, and the Department of Transportation all have officials appointed by the governor.
34Executive Departments SS8CG3b,cState Attorney General – This person is the Chief Lawyer for the state.Commissioner of Agriculture – This person is Head of the Agriculture department. He/she helps maintain farmer’s markets, attract Farming-Related businesses to the state and inspects farms and farming related products.Commissioner of Labor – This person is head of the Labor department. They regulate the health and safety of workers and enforce state labor laws.
35Executive Departments SS8CG3b,cCommissioner of Insurance – This person regulates the insurance companies and says which ones can operate in Georgia.Public Service Commissioners – These are people who regulate utilities in Georgia, such as phone, cable, electricity and water.Secretary of State – This person’s department maintains official records, supervises elections, appoints examining boards, grants corporate charters, and regulates stocks and bonds in Georgia.State School Superintendant - this is the head of the schools for our state.
36State Agencies There are over thirty state Agencies and Boards… SS8CG3b,cThere are over thirty state Agencies and Boards…Most of the members of these state agencies are appointed by the Governor or Commissioners of executive departments.Examples of Boards and Agencies are the… -State Board of Pardons and Paroles -the Board of Natural Resources -the State Personnel Board.
38Secretary of State Lieutenant Governor Commissioner of Labor Because Georgia’s government is involved in many legal proceedings, it needs legal advice and guidance. Which Official of the Executive branch provides this advice?Secretary of StateLieutenant GovernorCommissioner of LaborAttorney General
39Department of Community Affairs State Board of Transportation Which office of the executive branch maintains state records and supervises elections?Department of Community AffairsState Board of TransportationDepartment of LaborState Department (Secretary of State)
40Commission Executive Legislative Judicial Which Branch of the State Government sees that the state laws are implemented?CommissionExecutiveLegislativeJudicial
41Undefined number of years According to Georgia’s Constitution, how many consecutive years can Georgia’s Lieutenant governor serve in that capacity?4 Years8 Years16 yearsUndefined number of years
42Which of the following accurately describes the powers of the Georgia General Assembly? It has law-making powers over all areas of Georgia involving money, taxes ,revenue, and appropriations.It has law-making powers over all areas not Specifically Stated in the U.S. Constitution.It has sole power over some areas and split power with the U.S. Government in other areas.It has powers specifically designated in both the Georgia and U.S. Constitutions
43The Judicial Branch in Georgia SS8CG4a,b,c,d The Georgia Supreme Court is the Highest State Court in the State of Georgia.There are two types of Courts… -Trial Courts - Appellate courtsA Trial Court is where a criminal’s action or a lawsuit may be tried.
44The Judicial Branch in Georgia SS8CG4a,b,c,d An Appellate Court is where a previous case is appealed.Jurisdiction = is a term meaning which cases a court can try. This is because of the type of case, and the geographic location.Judges may be appointed, or Chosen in partisan and non-partisan elections
45Civil and Criminal Cases A Civil Case is where one person sues another for a claim of having done them wrong. -The person suing is the Plaintiff -The Person getting sued is the defendantMost Civil Cases are settled out of court, and those found guilty never have to go to jail.
46Civil and Criminal Cases The Second kind of case is a criminal case. This is where someone accused of breaking the law is put on trial by the law enforcement agencies.The Government’s lawyer is called the prosecutor.
50Which Branch of State Government has the main responsibility of writing the laws? LegislativeExecutiveJudicialFederal
51State Attorney General State School Superintendant Labor Commissioner Which elected state official controls the flow of federal and state education funding?State Attorney GeneralState School SuperintendantLabor CommissionerSecretary of State
52Federalism Separation of Powers Checks and balances The division of the three powers of government into three branches to create a limited government is called…FederalismSeparation of PowersChecks and balancesPopular Sovereignty
53Adult Justice SystemSS8CG4cPersons accused of a crime must goes through these steps…ArrestedArraignment - The Police bring the accused before the judge to tell why he/she has been arrestedGrand Jury – This is a group of people who determines if there is enough evidence for the accused to stand trial.Jury trialSentencing
54Settling Disputes Peacefully SS8CG4dFiling a lawsuit against someone is not always the best way to handle a dispute peacefully. Below are other ways…Mediation – A Neutral third person meets with all sides and helps them settle the dispute.Arbitration – A Neutral Third Person called an arbitrator meets with both sides and the arbitrator makes a legally binding decisionCompromise – Each of the disputing parties gives up something to live in peace
55Settling Disputes Peacefully SS8CG4dFiling a lawsuit against someone is not always the best way to handle a dispute peacefully. Below are other ways…Negotiation – The Process of giving up an issue with the intention of resolving it.Collaboration - occurs when members of opposing parties meet together to find common ground.Non-Violence – to seek change with peaceful protest
56The Juvenile Justice System On any given day, 2,500 children are locked up in Georgia because of Criminal Activity.Juveniles are Citizens under the age of 17Juveniles have to follow all other Federal, State and Local Laws, but have a special status under the law.A Juvenile’s Status can mean more lenient sentencing, but it also means that you have to obey some laws that adults don’t.
57Types of Offenses There are two types of offenses… A Status Offense (a.k.a. Unruly Behavior) is one where the Juvenile commits a crime that is only a crime for a Juvenile. Ex: Truancy, Disobeys Caregivers, Curfew Violations etc..A Delinquent Act is a crime committed by a child that would also be a crime if an adult did the same thing… Ex: Rape, Murder, Drugs etc.Children can be tried as an adult for serious crimes.
58Juvenile Courts exist in every county and have three purposes… SS8CG6 a,b,c,dJuvenile Courts exist in every county and have three purposes…To help protect the well being of ChildrenTo make sure that any child coming under the jurisdiction of the court receive the care, protection and control that they need.To provide for children that are removed from their homes.
59Steps in the Juvenile Justice Process Intake – A juvenile is turned over to an Intake Officer.Detention – When a Juvenile is detained, a probable cause hearing must be held within 72 hours.Formal Hearing – has two parts 1) Adjudicatory Hearing – Actual Trial 2) Dispositional Hearing – Sentencing PhaseSentencingAppeals
62Checks and Balances Popular Sovereignty Separation of Powers Which Constitutional Concept means that government’s true power comes from the people it governs?Checks and BalancesPopular SovereigntySeparation of PowersFederalism
63A Juvenile accused of assault and battery has committed a… MisdemeanorStatus OffenseDelinquent ActUnruly Behavior
64Federalism Separation of Powers Checks and balances The division of the three powers of government into three branches to create a limited government is called…FederalismSeparation of PowersChecks and balancesPopular Sovereignty
65Committees Federal Republics Political Parties Secretaries Both houses of the Georgia General Assembly are organized into this… In order to study bills more closely and take public comment on them…CommitteesFederal RepublicsPolitical PartiesSecretaries