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Federal and State Government

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1 Federal and State Government
Chapter 22 Federal and State Government

2 Standards SS8CG2 – Analyze role of legislative branch
SS8CG3 – Analyze role of executive branch SS8CG4 – Analyze role of judicial branch SS8CG5 – Analyze role of local government SS8CG1 – Describe role of citizens SS8E4 – Identify revenue sources and services provided by government

3 Standards SS8H12 – Explain importance of social, economic and political developments since 1970 SS8CG6 – Explain how court treats juveniles

4 Federal Government United States Government has 3 branches: Executive,
Legislative Judicial

5 Executive Branch President and Vice President
Their job is to ENFORCE LAWS

6 President / Vice President
You must be a natural born citizen Be 35 years old Have lived in U.S. for 14 consecutive years Elected to a 4 year term Can only serve 2 terms (8 years)

7 Legislative Branch Their job is to MAKE LAWS Congress

8 Legislative Branch Congress has 2 houses: (Bi-Cameral)
Senate andHouse of Representatives There are 2 Senators from each state, 100 total. Each state is equal There are 435 members of the House, how many Rep’s from each state is determined by the state’s population

9 U.S. Senate Senators are elected by the people
You must be 30 years old Be a resident of the state you are representing Be a citizen of U.S. for 9 years Senators are elected to a 6 year term

10 U.S. House of Representatives
You must be 25 years old A resident of the state you are representing Be a citizen of the U.S. for 7 years House members are elected to a 2 year term

11 Judicial Branch Judicial Branch is made up of all the courts.
Their job is to INTERPRET LAWS Determine if a law is constitutional or unconstitutional Supreme Court Justices are appointed by the President They are appointed for life!

12 Georgia’s Government Georgia’s state government has 3 branches:
Executive Legislative Judicial

13 Georgia’s Executive Branch
Georgia’s Executive Branch is made up of the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor. Their job is to ENFORCE THE LAW

14 Governor’s Responsibility
Enforce the law Propose an annual state budget Veto legislation Appoint members to state boards Balancing budget – can’t spend more money than you earn!! (MANAGING YOUR MONEY)

15 Executive Branch Qualifications for Governors: (1) must be 30,
(2) citizen of U.S. for 15 years, (3) resident of Georgia for 6 years Governors are elected to a 4 year term Governors can hold office for two terms(8 years) and then can run for re-election after sitting out of office for 4 years.

16 Executive Branch Lieutenant Governor is the Governor’s second in command. Qualifications for being Lieutenant Governor are the same as Governor. There are no limits on Lieutenant Governor’s. They can run for unlimited years.

17 Executive Branch Georgia voters also elect “Constitutional Officers”
Examples are Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Superintendent of Schools, Head of Agriculture, Head of Insurance, Head of Labor Plural executive, not favored by governor because they have powers independent of the governor.

18 Georgia’s Legislative Branch
Georgia’s Legislative Branch is called the General Assembly. General Assembly creates laws for Georgia General Assembly is organized into two houses, State Senate and State House of Representatives General Assembly members are elected to a two-year term

19 General Assembly To be a member of the General Assembly you :
(1) must be a citizen of the U.S. (2) must be 25 years old (Senate) 21 years old (House of Representative) (3) citizen of the state for 2 years (4) be a citizen of territory you represent for 1 year. General Assembly members have no term limit

20 Legislative Branch Every 10 years the government may change the voting districts for the Senate and House. The most important guideline for changing the districts is to attempt to keep an equal population among the districts. State representation based on population!


22 Creating Laws Bills are legislature that are going to be voted on to become laws. Bill is introduced in a chamber (Senate or House of Rep’s.) Bill is reviewed in a committee and approved Bill is voted on by the chamber it came from. Bill is voted on by chamber it did not come from Bill is sent to Governor (or President)

23 Creating Laws If a bill is not approved by either house, it is “dead” and must start over from the house it originated in

24 State Constitution vs. U.S. Constitution
U.S. Constitution can only be amended, changed, by Congress Georgia Constitution is amended by voting by citizens in general elections

25 Georgia’s Judicial Branch
Georgia’s Judicial Branch is made up of the state court system Their job is to INTERPRET LAWS Determine if a law is constitutional or unconstitutional Georgia Supreme Court Judges are elected by citizens in elections

26 Voting In order to vote for an elected official you must:
Be 18 years old Be a citizen of the U.S. Live in the county where you are voting Voting is considered the most important responsibility of a citizen!

27 Elected Officials These are all elected by the people
Secretary of State Attorney General State School Superintendent, Commissioner of Insurance, Commissioner of Agriculture, Commissioner of Labor are all elected officials.

28 Appointed Officials Not all officials are elected by the people, some are appointed by the Governor “Departments” and “boards” are usually appointed by the governor, not elected!

29 Grand Jury All court cases are heard by a jury – a random selection of citizens who determine if someone is innocent or guilty A grand jury protects citizens accused of crimes. Grand Jury – doesn’t determine guilt, only determines if there is enough evidence present to have a court case.

30 Criminal Law vs. Civil Law
Two types of law: Criminal and Civil Criminal law deals with cases in which a law has been broken Civil law deals with cases in which a law hasn’t necessarily been broken. Usually payment of some sort will solve the problem. (Contract dispute, divorce)

31 Criminal Law vs. Civil Law
A law has been broken. Punishment is jail time Plaintiff is the person who has been done wrong Government brings charges (Georgia vs. Mr. O’Quinn) Defendant is the person who has “done something wrong” A law has not been broken. Punishment is payment. Plaintiff is the person who has been done wrong A person brings charges (Mr. O’Quinn vs. Mrs. Saunders) Defendant is the person who has “done something wrong”

32 Juvenile Justice System
Juvenile Justice System – Involves people under the age of 17. It was created to: Help protect the well being of children To make sure that any child under the jurisdiction of the court receives care, guidance and control. It was created in the 1800’s to rehabilitate (reform) children rather than punish them.

33 Juvenile Justice System
A juvenile is any person under the age of 17 Delinquent Child – a child who commits and act that would be a crime if committed by an adult. (Stealing, robbery) Deprived Child – a child that has no parent, guardian or custodian, or who has been abandoned or neglected by his parents or guardian.

34 Juvenile Justice System
Unruly Child – a child who commits an act which is not unlawful for an adult (running away, violation of curfew) Unruly Children are guilty of Status Offenses A status offense is legal for adults. (Running away, drinking alcohol)

35 Probable Cause Hearing
If you are arrested as a juvenile, it usually takes 2 days to have a probable cause hearing. This is a hearing to decide if you should actually have a juvenile trial.

36 Juvenile Justice System
Juveniles have the same rights as adults if arrested by the police. However, Juveniles DO NOT have the right to a jury trial. This is different than adults, who do have this right. Most Juvenile Court proceedings are not open to the public

37 Juvenile Justice System
There are 7 crimes that if committed by a juvenile, will go straight to regular justice system: 1.) murder 2.) voluntary manslaughter 3.) rape 4.) aggravated sodomy 5.) aggravated child molestation 6.) aggravated sexual battery 7.) armed robbery with a firearm

38 Terms Criminal – Delinquent Child Crime – Delinquent Act
Arrest – Take Into Custody Indictment – Petition Trial – Adjudication Conviction – Adjudication Prison – Youth Development Jail – Detention facility

39 Local Government Georgia’s local governments center around the COUNTY. (unlike other states) Counties collect taxes, organize elections, maintain roads, etc… Having smaller county-centered political structure gives more Georgians political representation.

40 Local Government Most common type of City Government in Georgia is the mayor-council form. Mayor is head of a city but depends on a council for approval actions.

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