Presentation on theme: "Federal and State Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Federal and State Government Chapter 22Federal and State Government
2 Standards SS8CG2 – Analyze role of legislative branch SS8CG3 – Analyze role of executive branchSS8CG4 – Analyze role of judicial branchSS8CG5 – Analyze role of local governmentSS8CG1 – Describe role of citizensSS8E4 – Identify revenue sources and services provided by government
3 StandardsSS8H12 – Explain importance of social, economic and political developments since 1970SS8CG6 – Explain how court treats juveniles
4 Federal Government United States Government has 3 branches: Executive, LegislativeJudicial
5 Executive Branch President and Vice President Their job is to ENFORCE LAWS
6 President / Vice President You must be a natural born citizenBe 35 years oldHave lived in U.S. for 14 consecutive yearsElected to a 4 year termCan only serve 2 terms (8 years)
7 Legislative BranchTheir job is to MAKE LAWSCongress
8 Legislative Branch Congress has 2 houses: (Bi-Cameral) Senate andHouse of RepresentativesThere are 2 Senators from each state, 100 total. Each state is equalThere are 435 members of the House, how many Rep’s from each state is determined by the state’s population
9 U.S. Senate Senators are elected by the people You must be 30 years oldBe a resident of the state you are representingBe a citizen of U.S. for 9 yearsSenators are elected to a 6 year term
10 U.S. House of Representatives You must be 25 years oldA resident of the state you are representingBe a citizen of the U.S. for 7 yearsHouse members are elected to a 2 year term
11 Judicial Branch Judicial Branch is made up of all the courts. Their job is to INTERPRET LAWSDetermine if a law is constitutional or unconstitutionalSupreme Court Justices are appointed by the PresidentThey are appointed for life!
12 Georgia’s Government Georgia’s state government has 3 branches: ExecutiveLegislativeJudicial
13 Georgia’s Executive Branch Georgia’s Executive Branch is made up of the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor.Their job is to ENFORCE THE LAW
14 Governor’s Responsibility Enforce the lawPropose an annual state budgetVeto legislationAppoint members to state boardsBalancing budget – can’t spend more money than you earn!! (MANAGING YOUR MONEY)
15 Executive Branch Qualifications for Governors: (1) must be 30, (2) citizen of U.S. for 15 years,(3) resident of Georgia for 6 yearsGovernors are elected to a 4 year termGovernors can hold office for two terms(8 years) and then can run for re-election after sitting out of office for 4 years.
16 Executive BranchLieutenant Governor is the Governor’s second in command.Qualifications for being Lieutenant Governor are the same as Governor.There are no limits on Lieutenant Governor’s. They can run for unlimited years.
17 Executive Branch Georgia voters also elect “Constitutional Officers” Examples are Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Superintendent of Schools, Head of Agriculture, Head of Insurance, Head of LaborPlural executive, not favored by governor because they have powers independent of the governor.
18 Georgia’s Legislative Branch Georgia’s Legislative Branch is called the General Assembly.General Assembly creates laws for GeorgiaGeneral Assembly is organized into two houses, State Senate and State House of RepresentativesGeneral Assembly members are elected to a two-year term
19 General Assembly To be a member of the General Assembly you : (1) must be a citizen of the U.S.(2) must be 25 years old (Senate) 21 years old (House of Representative)(3) citizen of the state for 2 years(4) be a citizen of territory you represent for 1 year.General Assembly members have no term limit
20 Legislative BranchEvery 10 years the government may change the voting districts for the Senate and House.The most important guideline for changing the districts is to attempt to keep an equal population among the districts.State representation based on population!
22 Creating LawsBills are legislature that are going to be voted on to become laws.Bill is introduced in a chamber (Senate or House of Rep’s.)Bill is reviewed in a committee and approvedBill is voted on by the chamber it came from.Bill is voted on by chamber it did not come fromBill is sent to Governor (or President)
23 Creating LawsIf a bill is not approved by either house, it is “dead” and must start over from the house it originated in
24 State Constitution vs. U.S. Constitution U.S. Constitution can only be amended, changed, by CongressGeorgia Constitution is amended by voting by citizens in general elections
25 Georgia’s Judicial Branch Georgia’s Judicial Branch is made up of the state court systemTheir job is to INTERPRET LAWSDetermine if a law is constitutional or unconstitutionalGeorgia Supreme Court Judges are elected by citizens in elections
26 Voting In order to vote for an elected official you must: Be 18 years oldBe a citizen of the U.S.Live in the county where you are votingVoting is considered the most important responsibility of a citizen!
27 Elected Officials These are all elected by the people Secretary of StateAttorney GeneralState School Superintendent, Commissioner of Insurance, Commissioner of Agriculture, Commissioner of Labor are all elected officials.
28 Appointed OfficialsNot all officials are elected by the people, some are appointed by the Governor“Departments” and “boards” are usually appointed by the governor, not elected!
29 Grand JuryAll court cases are heard by a jury – a random selection of citizens who determine if someone is innocent or guiltyA grand jury protects citizens accused of crimes.Grand Jury – doesn’t determine guilt, only determines if there is enough evidence present to have a court case.
30 Criminal Law vs. Civil Law Two types of law: Criminal and CivilCriminal law deals with cases in which a law has been brokenCivil law deals with cases in which a law hasn’t necessarily been broken. Usually payment of some sort will solve the problem. (Contract dispute, divorce)
31 Criminal Law vs. Civil Law A law has been broken.Punishment is jail timePlaintiff is the person who has been done wrongGovernment brings charges (Georgia vs. Mr. O’Quinn)Defendant is the person who has “done something wrong”A law has not been broken.Punishment is payment.Plaintiff is the person who has been done wrongA person brings charges (Mr. O’Quinn vs. Mrs. Saunders)Defendant is the person who has “done something wrong”
32 Juvenile Justice System Juvenile Justice System – Involves people under the age of 17.It was created to:Help protect the well being of childrenTo make sure that any child under the jurisdiction of the court receives care, guidance and control.It was created in the 1800’s to rehabilitate (reform) children rather than punish them.
33 Juvenile Justice System A juvenile is any person under the age of 17Delinquent Child – a child who commits and act that would be a crime if committed by an adult. (Stealing, robbery)Deprived Child – a child that has no parent, guardian or custodian, or who has been abandoned or neglected by his parents or guardian.
34 Juvenile Justice System Unruly Child – a child who commits an act which is not unlawful for an adult (running away, violation of curfew)Unruly Children are guilty of Status OffensesA status offense is legal for adults. (Running away, drinking alcohol)
35 Probable Cause Hearing If you are arrested as a juvenile, it usually takes 2 days to have a probable cause hearing.This is a hearing to decide if you should actually have a juvenile trial.
36 Juvenile Justice System Juveniles have the same rights as adults if arrested by the police.However, Juveniles DO NOT have the right to a jury trial. This is different than adults, who do have this right.Most Juvenile Court proceedings are not open to the public
37 Juvenile Justice System There are 7 crimes that if committed by a juvenile, will go straight to regular justice system:1.) murder2.) voluntary manslaughter3.) rape4.) aggravated sodomy5.) aggravated child molestation6.) aggravated sexual battery7.) armed robbery with a firearm
39 Local GovernmentGeorgia’s local governments center around the COUNTY. (unlike other states)Counties collect taxes, organize elections, maintain roads, etc…Having smaller county-centered political structure gives more Georgians political representation.
40 Local GovernmentMost common type of City Government in Georgia is the mayor-council form.Mayor is head of a city but depends on a council for approval actions.