Presentation on theme: "Georgia Studies Unit 3-Statehood, Revolution, and Westward Expansion"— Presentation transcript:
1Georgia StudiesUnit 3-Statehood, Revolution, and Westward ExpansionLesson 1-Cause of the American Revolution
2Lesson 1-Causes of the American Revolution Essential Question-How did the causes of the American Revolution impact Georgia?-Why was trade so important to the colonies during the American Revolution?
3North America, 1754 Spain claimed Florida and Mexico France claimed land from Louisiana to the Great Lakes, and parts of Canada; New Orleans (south) and Detroit (north) anchored French settlementsGreat Britain had established the 13 colonies along the Atlantic coast
4French and Indian War Origins France and Great Britain wanted the treasures of the American continentBoth countries feared the other would gain the most powerFrance had the stronger army with more experienced leadership; British had better navyBoth sides had allies with certain Indian tribes
5The French and Indian War Both sides claimed the Ohio River Valley areaThe French built several forts in the area; many Indians sided with the FrenchThe Virginia governor sent Captain George Washington with soldiers to Fort Necessity; a battle eruptedThe war soon spread to Europe; by 1758, the British controlled the Ohio ValleyThe Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war; the British were victorious.
6Georgia and the War’s Aftermath Treaty of Paris set Georgia’s western boundary at the Mississippi RiverProclamation of 1763 (King George III): Georgia’s southern boundary set at St. Mary’s River; Georgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains as the land was reserved for Native Americans.Cherokee and Creek tribes gave up land claims north of Augusta and the costal region
7Unhappy with British Acts Great Britain needed money; much debt and security expenses resulted from the French and Indian WarSugar Act: tax on sugar and molasses imported from the West IndiesStamp Act: tax on newspapers, legal documents, and licensesGeorgians disapproved of these acts
8The Liberty Boys Part of larger group, the “Sons of Liberty” Georgians who came together to oppose the Stamp ActSome called them “Liberty Brawlers”Met in taverns, such as Savannah’s Tondee’s TavernGeorgia only colony to actually sell the stampsStamp Act was eventually repealed
9Protests IncreaseGeorgia protested the British taxation (acts) to a small extent. The other 12 colonies were more directly effected by many of these acts and reacted (protested) more strongly.Noble Wimberly Jones, speaker of Georgia colonial assembly, led Townshend Act protestsTownshend Acts: placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass, and coloring for paintsGovernor Wright disbanded the assembly to try to end the protests
10Intolerable ActsBoston Tea Party-Protest against the Tea Act in Boston, Massachusetts on December 16, Members of the Sons of Liberty, dressed as Native Americans, dumped 90,000 lbs. of tea into Boston Harbor.Great Britain punished the Massachusetts colony by creating the Coercive Acts
11Intolerable Acts The Intolerable Acts had four major effects: 1. Closed Boston Harbor2. Cancelled the Massachusetts Royal Charter3. British officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts were tried in Great Britain.4. Quartering Act-Citizens of Massachusetts were forced to house and feed British troops at their own experience.
12Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” pamphlet encourage colonies to break from Great Britain; sold more than 500,000 copiesOther pamphlets, including “The Crisis” influenced opinionAugust 2, 1776:Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton (representatives from Georgia) sign the Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration meant the colonists were one nation; Georgians prepared for war
13Unit 3: Revolution in Georgia Lesson 2: The Revolutionary War Period Georgia StudiesUnit 3: Revolution in GeorgiaLesson 2: The Revolutionary War Period
14Lesson 2-The Revolutionary War Period Essential Question- What role did Georgia and its citizens play in the American Revolution?
15First Continental Congress Many of the British colonies in North America had began to protest taxation as long as they were not represented in British Parliament.12 of the 13 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress; Georgia was not represented.Urged colonies to establish “Committees of Safety”Agreed to stop all trade with BritainCarried on its work in secret“Provincial Congress” held in Savannah in January 1775; less than one-half of Georgia’s parishes were represented
16Second Continental Congress Met in Philadelphia after Lexington and Concord battles in Massachusetts.Drafted petition for King George III, asking for end of unfriendly steps against the coloniesGeorge III refused to accept the petitionAuthorized Continental ArmyGeorgia’s Lyman Hall arrived in May 1775August 2, 1776: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton sign the Declaration of Independence
17Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress Held at Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah in July 1775Archibald Bulloch, John Houstoun, Noble Wimberly Jones, and Reverend John Zubly chosen to represent Georgia in PhiladelphiaDelegates given no specific instructions; told to make best decisions for GeorgiansGovernor Wright fled colony in early 1776; Council of Safety established “Rules and Regulations” to govern Georgia
18Revolutionary War Fighting in Georgia Georgia was divided between patriots and loyalists.Savannah captured and looted by British troops in December 1778; lootings, murders, and burnings occurredSunbury port captured in early 1779; Augusta was also attackedGeorgia militia not effective against well-trained British troops. French military leaders and reinforcements were brought in to train and assist the Continental Army.Governor Wright eventually returned from Great Britain to govern Georgia. Continued to govern from Savannah until 1783.
19Battle of Kettle Creek (1779) Colonel Elijah Clarke led Georgia militia, defeated 800 British troops near Washington, GeorgiaGreat victory for morale of the militia and Georgians seeking independenceWon badly-needed weapons and horses from the British
20Siege of Savannah (1779)15,000 Americans and 4,000 French laid siege to SavannahAttack on October 9 resulted in 1,000 American and French deaths in less than an hour; only 40 British troops diedPolish Count Casimir Pulaski killedSavannah remained under British control, and the leadership of James Wright, for nearly four more yearsGuerrilla warfare continued in the Georgia backcountry
21Georgia Wartime Heroes Nancy Hart single-handedly captured a group of British loyalists who bragged of murdering an American colonel; Hart County is the only county named for a womanAustin Dabney fought with distinction and was wounded at Kettle Creek; he also saved Elijah Clarke’s life during that battle.
22The War EndsElijah Clarke, the Georgia Militia, and the Continental Army regain Augusta from British in June 1781; 11 battles or skirmishes fought in Georgia during the warGeorge Washington, with French help, force British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781British leave Savannah in the spring of 1782Treaty of Paris (September 1783) ends war; treaty is signed by United States, Great Britain, and France