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Building Blocks Of Minerals To fully understand rocks and minerals, you must first consider the chemistry behind minerals. Things to consider include; Reference: Pages 32 - 38 1) Atoms (and its parts) Reference: Pages 32 - 38 4) Molecules Reference: Pages 32 - 38 2) Ions 3) Compounds 5) Elements Reference: Pages 32 - 38
Building Blocks Of Minerals What materials make up elements? Atoms: The smallest unit of matter. The sub-atomic particles that make up atoms include: 1) Proton - positively charged particle located in the nucleus. 2) Neutron - particle located in the nucleus with no charge. 3) Nucleus - central portion of an atom that comprise the majority of the atoms mass. Contain both protons and neutrons. 4) Electron - negatively charged particle located in the surrounding energy levels. 5) Energy Level - shells that surround the nucleus that contain the electrons.
Building Blocks Of Minerals What materials make up elements? Atoms: Atoms can lose or gain electrons to form an ION. An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative charge. Ion:
Building Blocks Of Minerals Atoms and Ions form compounds and molecules A substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined. A compound can have properties entirely unlike the elements in which it is made. Compound: The smallest part of a compound that still has all the properties of that compound.Example: Water molecule º H 2 O Molecule: Example: Halite (NaCl) is commonly called salt. Salt is can be eaten, but sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) are poisonous.
Building Blocks Of Minerals Atoms and Ions can bond together to form THREE different types of compounds. These include; 1)Ionic Compounds Reference: Pages Involve Ionic bonding between a metal and a non-metal. Electrons are transferred from the metal to the non-metal. Example: 1)Ionic Compounds Reference: Pages 36-37
Building Blocks Of Minerals Atoms and Ions can bond together to form THREE different types of compounds. These include; 2) Molecular Compounds Reference: Pages 37-38 Involve covalent bonding between two or more non-metals. Electrons are shared between the non-metals. Example:
Building Blocks Of Minerals Atoms and Ions can bond together to form THREE different types of compounds. These include; 3) Metallic Compounds Reference: Page 38 Involve positively charges metal ions existing in a sea of electrons. The electrons are free to move. Metallic bonds are very strong and is what holds metal together. Example:
Building Blocks Of Minerals What materials make up minerals? Rhyme to Remember Over Seas American Indians Can’t Swim Past Mexico Elements: Any material that is made up of only one type of atoms. There are over 100 known elements, but only 8 of these make up more than 98.5% of Earth’s crust by mass; 1) Oxygen (46.6%)5) Calcium (3.6%) 2) Silicon (27.7%)6) Sodium (2.8%) 3) Aluminum (8.1%)7) Potassium (2.6%) 4) Iron (5.0%)8) Magnesium (2.1%)
Building Blocks Of Minerals What materials make up minerals? Elements: Names and Symbols of elements found in common minerals include: 1) Chlorine (Cl) 2) Calcium (Ca)3) Carbon (C) 4) Aluminum (Al) 5) Copper (Cu)6) Cobalt (Co)7) Fluorine (F)8) Gold (Au) 9) Hydrogen (H)10) Iron (Fe)11) Lead (Pb)12) Magnesium (Mg) 13) Oxygen (O)14) Nitrogen (N)15) Nickel (Ni)16) Manganese (Mn) 17) Silicon (Si) 18) Sodium (Na)19) Silver (Ag)20) Potassium (K) 21) Sulfur (S)22) Tin (Sn)23) Zinc (Zn) For Example: Halite – NaCl, Galena – PbS,Hematite - Fe 2 O 3
Building Blocks Of Minerals What is a Mineral? Minerals can consist of elements or compounds. Majority are compounds. Example Galena (PbS) and Pyrite (FeS 2 ) To be a mineral a substance must satisfy the following: Native Minerals consist of only one type of element. Examples include Gold, Silver, Sulfur, Diamond, Copper. A naturally occurring inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and molecular structure. 1) Occur in nature 2) Inorganic 3) Solid 4) Definite chemical composition 5) Definite molecular structure
Sample Problem Which two elements are the most abundant in Earth’s continental crust? (A)magnesium and iron (B)magnesium and silicon (C)oxygen and iron (D)oxygen and silicon Remember the Rhyme: Over Seas American Indians Can’t Swim Past Mexico
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