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What is a Mineral?. What is a mineral? Solid Not liquid, gas, or plasma.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral?. What is a mineral? Solid Not liquid, gas, or plasma."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Mineral?

2 What is a mineral? Solid Not liquid, gas, or plasma

3 What is a mineral? Naturally-occurring Not man-made

4 What is a mineral? Inorganic Never alive

5 What is a mineral? Fixed chemical composition: an element or a compound

6 What is a mineral? Crystal structure: atoms or molecules in an orderly pattern

7 Most minerals are compounds Quartz: silicon and oxygen –SiO 2 – Most abundant in earth’s crust Halite: sodium and chloride –NaCl

8 Examples of minerals Quartz Halite (rock salt) Mica

9 Not minerals

10 There are more than 2,000 kinds of minerals, but fewer than 20 are common minerals that form rock 10 minerals make up 90% of the earth’s crust

11 2 Main Types of Minerals Silicates and Non-Silicates

12 Silicates Contain atoms of silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) Forms a tetrahedron Many contain one or more different kinds of atoms Ex. Feldspar – silicon and oxygen with potassium SiO 2 - Quartz 96% of the crust is made of silicates

13 Non-Silicates: 6 Groups

14 Native Minerals Made up of single elements Copper Gold Sulfur

15 Halides Cation: K, Na, or Ca with an Anion: Cl or F – Halite (NaCl)

16 Sulfides Contain an S atom Ex: Pyrite (FeS 2 ) Fools Gold

17 Carbonates Contains CO 3 as part of the compound Ex: Malachite Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2

18 Sulfates Contains SO 4 as part of the compound Ex: Gypsum CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O

19 Oxides Contains O atom except for silicates, carbonates, and sulfates Ex: Hematite Fe2O3


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