Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Section 1: Organisms and Their RelationshipsSection 2: Flow of Energy in an EcosystemSection 3: Cycling of Matter
2Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsEcologyScientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studiedEcologists observe, experiment, and model using a variety of tools and methods.
3A thin layer around Earth that supports life Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsThe BiosphereA thin layer around Earth that supports lifeExtends several kilometers above the Earth’s surfaceExtends several kilometers below the ocean’s surface
4The Biosphere 2.1 Organisms and Their Relationships Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsThe Biosphere
5Living factors in an organism’s environment Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsBiotic FactorsLiving factors in an organism’s environmentEx: animals, plants, algae, etc.Abiotic FactorsNonliving factors in an organism’s environmentOrganisms adapt to survive in the abiotic factors present in their natural environment.Ex: rocks, dirt, air currents, temperature, moisture, light, etc.
6Levels of Organization Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsLevels of OrganizationLevels increase in complexity as the numbers and interactions between organisms increase.atomsmoleculesorganellescellstissuesorgansorgansystemsorganismpopulationbiological communityecosystembiomebiosphere
72.1 Organisms and Their Relationships DefinitionsAtomsMoleculesOrganellesCellsTissuesOrgansOrgan SystemOrganism
8Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsOrganisms of a single species that share the same geographic location at the same time make up a population.A biological community is a group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time.
9Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsAn ecosystem is a biological community and all of the abiotic factors that affect it.A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities.
10Ecosystem Interactions Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsEcosystem InteractionsA habitat is an area where an organism lives.A niche is the role (job) or position that an organism has in its environment.Types of NichesProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerDecomposerScavenger
11Community Interactions Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsCommunity InteractionsCompetitionOccurs when more than one organism uses a resource at the same timePredationMany species get their food by eating other organisms.
12Symbiotic Relationships Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their RelationshipsSymbiotic RelationshipsThe close relationship that exists when two or more species live together (means “living together”)MutualismCommensalismParasitismPredation
132.1 Organisms and Their Relationships Symbiotic RelationshipOrganism #1Organism #2Mutualism+CommensalismOParasitism-Predation- (killed)Key: + = Helped/Benefited- = HarmedO = Unaffected
142.2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem NUTRITIONThe ultimate source of energy is the SUN, which supplies the energy that fuels life.
15Energy in an Ecosystem (Types of Niches) Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Flow of Energy in an EcosystemEnergy in an Ecosystem (Types of Niches)The ProducersAutotrophs- Organism that collects energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce food- Plant’s use the sun’s energy to manufacture food in a process called photosynthesis
16Energy in an Ecosystem (Types of Niches) Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Flow of Energy in an EcosystemEnergy in an Ecosystem (Types of Niches)The Consumers- HeterotrophsOrganism that gets it energy requirements byconsuming other organismsA lynx is a heterotroph.
172.2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem Primary Consumers: an organism that gets its energy from producers (plants); usually called herbivoresSecondary Consumers: a consumer that gets its energy from other consumers; usually called carnivoresTypes of consumersHerbivoresCarnivoresOmnivoresScavengers: animals that feed on animals that have already died (ex: vultures, ants, beetles)Decomposers: organisms that break down and absorb nutrients from dead organisms (ex: fungi, bacteria)
18Detritivores eat fragments of dead matter in an Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystemecosystem, andreturn nutrientsto the soil, air,and water wherethe nutrients canbe reused byorganisms.Detritivores eat fragments of dead matter in anFungus
19Food Chains 2.2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Flow of Energy in an EcosystemFood ChainsA food chain is a simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem.Arrows indicate the direction in which energy is transferredUsually 3-5 links; energy is lost in every transferEnergy is lost to the environment as HEAT
20Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Flow of Energy in an EcosystemFood WebsA food web is a model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathways in which energy flows through a group of organisms.
21Food chains and food webs model the energy flow through an ecosystem. Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Flow of Energy in an EcosystemModels of Energy FlowFood chains and food webs model the energy flow through an ecosystem.Each step in a food chain or food web is called a trophic level.
23Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Flow of Energy in an EcosystemEcological PyramidsA diagram that can show the relative amounts of energy, biomass, or numbers of organisms at each trophic level in an organism
24Cycles in the Biosphere Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterCycles in the BiosphereEnergy is transformed into usable forms to support the functions of an ecosystem.The cycling of nutrients in the biosphere involves both matter in living organisms and physical processes found in the environment such as weathering.
25Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterThe Water Cycle
26Freshwater constitutes only about 3 percent of all water on Earth. Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterApproximately 90 percent of water vapor evaporates from oceans, lakes, and rivers; 10 percent evaporates from the surface of plants through a process called transpiration.Freshwater constitutes only about 3 percent of all water on Earth.About 69 percent of all freshwater is found in ice caps and glaciers.
27The Carbon and Oxygen Cycles Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterThe Carbon and Oxygen Cycles
28Carbon and oxygen often make up molecules essential for life. Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterCarbon and oxygen often make up molecules essential for life.Carbon and oxygen recycle relatively quickly through living organisms.
29Organic matter converted to peat, coal, oil, or gas deposits (carbon) Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterLong-term CycleOrganic matter converted to peat, coal, oil, or gas deposits (carbon)Calcium carbonate (carbon and oxygen)Short-term CycleBurning fossil fuels (carbon)
30Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterThe Nitrogen CycleThe capture and conversion of nitrogen into a form that is useable by plants is called nitrogen fixation.
31Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterNitrogen enters the food web when plants absorb nitrogen compounds from soil.Consumers get nitrogen by eating plants or animals that contain nitrogen.
32Nitrogen is returned to the soil in several ways: Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterNitrogen is returned to the soil in several ways:Animals urinate.Organisms die.Organisms convert ammonia into nitrogen compounds.Denitrification
33The Phosphorus Cycle 2.3 Cycling of Matter Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterThe Phosphorus Cycle
34Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Cycling of MatterShort-term CyclePhosphorus is cycled from the soil to producers and then from the producers to consumers.Long-term CycleWeathering or erosion of rocks that contain phosphorus slowly adds phosphorus to the cycle.
35Three Types of Sampling Methods 1.) Random Point SurveyA random point survey uses randomly-selected points in a study are to characterize a sitePopulation selected in a manner that ensures that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selectedMore points = more accurate data
36Three Types of Sampling Methods 2.) Quadrat SurveyA quadrat is a plot of a fixed size in which density of objects can be measuredPlots usually circular or SquaredMain goal is that scientists want to know the number of objects per unit area (density)
37Three Types of Sampling Methods 3.) Core SampleA core sample is obtained by inserting a hollow tube-shaped device into the bottom sediments to retrieve a tube full of sediments with its accompanying organisms
38Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Principles of EcologyChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
39Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsThe act of one organism consuming another organism for food is _______.predationparasitismcommensalismmutualismDCBACDQ 1
40from an autotroph to a heterotroph from a heterotroph to an autotroph Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsIdentify how energy flows through an ecosystem in a typical food chain.from an autotroph to a heterotrophfrom a heterotroph to an autotrophfrom a carnivore to an herbivorefrom an omnivore to an herbivoreDCBACDQ 2
41Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhat is a chemical substance that an organism must obtain from its environment to survive?biomassenergymatternutrientDCBACDQ 3
42Which are biotic factors in a forest environment? Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Formative QuestionsWhich are biotic factors in a forest environment?plants and microscopic organisms livingpH and salt concentration of the soilsunlight, soil type and soil nutrientstemperature, air currents and rainfallDCBAFQ 1
43Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Formative QuestionsWhat is the name for a group of interacting populations that occupy the same area at the same time?ecosystemhabitatbiological communitybiotic collectionABCDFQ 2
44all of the biotic factors in an ecosystem Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.1 Formative QuestionsWhich defines habitat?all of the biotic factors in an ecosysteman area where an organism livesan area in which various species interactthe role or position that an organism hasDCBAFQ 3
45What type of organism is the foundation of all ecosystems? Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Formative QuestionsWhat type of organism is the foundation of all ecosystems?autotrophherbivoreheterotrophdecomposerDCBAFQ 4
46How do detritivores obtain their energy in an ecosystem? Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Formative QuestionsHow do detritivores obtain their energy in an ecosystem?They feed on fragments of dead plants and animalsThey feed on organisms by releasing digestive enzymes.They get energy from inorganic substances to make food.They use chlorophyll to capture energy from the sun.DCBAFQ 5
47Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.2 Formative QuestionsWhich type of organism exists at all trophic levels except the first trophic level?carnivoresherbivoresautotrophsheterotrophsDCBAFQ 6
48What type of organism returns nutrients to an ecosystem? Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Formative QuestionsWhat type of organism returns nutrients to an ecosystem?decomposerprimary producersecondary producertop level consumerDCBAFQ 7
49Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Formative QuestionsWhat type of scientist studies water found underground, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of the earth?biochemistecologistgeologisthydrologistDCBAFQ 8
50Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Formative QuestionsWhich biogeochemical cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, precipitation and runoff?carbon cyclenitrogen cyclephosphorus cyclewater cycleDCBAFQ 9
51combustion of fossil fuels deposition of dead material Chapter 2Principles of Ecology2.3 Formative QuestionsWhich process in this cycle converts carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates?photosynthesisrespirationcombustion of fossil fuelsdeposition of dead materialDCBAFQ 10
52Use the diagram to compare and contrast biotic Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Assessment QuestionsUse the diagram to compare and contrast bioticand abiotic factors. Give examples of each.CAQ 1
53Answer: Biotic factors include the living factors in an organism’s Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Assessment QuestionsAnswer: Biotic factors include the livingfactors in an organism’senvironment, such as animals,reptiles, plants, and microscopicorganisms. Abiotic factors are thenonliving factors, such as watertemperature, rainfall, soil, andavailable nutrients.CAQ 2
54Use the image below to explain how decomposers Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Assessment QuestionsUse the image below to explain how decomposerssupply phosphorus to soil, groundwater, oceans,lakes, ponds, and rivers.CAQ 3
55Answer: All organisms contain phosphorus. Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Assessment QuestionsAnswer: All organisms contain phosphorus.When organisms die or producewaste products, decomposersreturn the phosphorus to the soilwhere it can be used again.CAQ 4
56The diagram shows how carbon cycles through the environment. Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Assessment QuestionsThe diagram showshow carbon cyclesthrough theenvironment.Describe howphotosynthesis isinvolved in thecarbon cycle.CAQ 5
57Answer: During photosynthesis, green plants and algae convert carbon Chapter 2Principles of EcologyChapter Assessment QuestionsAnswer: During photosynthesis, greenplants and algae convert carbondioxide and water to carbohydratesand release oxygen into the air.The plants use the carbohydratesfor energy. Carbon dioxide isreleased back into the air throughcellular respiration.CAQ 6
58Chapter 2Principles of EcologyStandardized Test PracticeIn what type of activity would you most expect an ecologist to be involved?identifying and classifying various species of insects in an ecosystemlocating fossils of distinct species of turtles in a geographical areaobserving the relationships that woodpeckers have with other species in their environmentstudying the internal organs of a seal to learn how it survives in its environmentDCBASTP 1
59Chapter 2Principles of EcologyStandardized Test PracticeCertain types of tropical orchids use trees for support in order to grow higher and obtain more light. This neither harms nor benefits the tree. What type of symbiotic relationship is this?commensalismcompetitionmutualismparasitismDCBASTP 2
60Chapter 2Principles of EcologyStandardized Test PracticeIf an ecologist finds that the long-tailed weasels have disappeared from the desert community, she should conclude that there will be a decrease in the population of coyotes.BAtruefalseSTP 3
61Why is this mouse classified as an omnivore? Chapter 2Principles of EcologyStandardized Test PracticeWhy is this mouse classified as an omnivore?It is consumed bysnakes.It consumesgrasshoppers.It is a third-levelconsumer.It consumes bothgrasshoppers andDCBASTP 4
62Which process returns nitrogen to the food web? Chapter 2Principles of EcologyStandardized Test PracticeWhich process returns nitrogen to the food web?decompositiondenitrificationnitrificationnitrogen fixationDCBASTP 5