Presentation on theme: "The Reconstruction Era"— Presentation transcript:
1The Reconstruction Era Ruins seen from the capitol, Columbia, S.C., Photographed by George N. Barnard. 165-SC-53.
2After the War South lay in ruins (destroyed) Nearly 4 million freedman (freed slaves) needed food, clothing, & jobsPresident Lincoln planned for Reconstruction, the rebuilding of the SouthRuins seen from the Circular Church, Charleston, S.C., B-4667.
3Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan Reunite Union quicklySouthern state could form a new government after 10 % of its voters swore loyalty to U.S.States also had to abolish slaveryMany in Congress didn’t like Lincoln’s plan & wanted a stricter form of Reconstruction
4Acts of Congress Freedman’s Bureau was created by Congress It gave food, clothing, & other kinds of help to the freedman.Thirteenth AmendmentPassed by Congress in January, 1865Ended slavery throughout the U.S.
5Room of African American women sewing. Glimpses at the Freedmen - The Freedmen's Union Industrial School, Richmond, Va. / from a sketch by Jas E. Taylor (1866).Room of African American women sewing.
6Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 Andrew Johnson became PresidentJohn Wilkes Booth
7Reconstruction Plan of Andrew Johnson In each southern states, a majority of voters must swear loyalty to the U.S.Each state must approve the 13th AmendmentThen each state could rejoin the UnionAndrew Johnson, Vice President & President
8Response to Johnson’s Plan Southern States met Johnson’s demandsRepublicans in Congress outraged because African Americans were not allowed to vote & former Confederate Leaders were elected to Congress
9Radical Reconstruction After the war, most southern states quickly ratified the 13th Amendment (ended slavery)Then passed Black Codes, which limited the rights of African Americans.Radical Republicans in Congress decide to take over ReconstructionThey wanted to break the power of the southern planters and to make sure African Americans had the right to vote.Radical Reconstruction
10Radical Reconstruction (continued) 14th Amendment, 1868 – All people born in the U.S. are citizens. No state may take away rights of citizens.15th Amendment, 1870 – The right to vote cannot be denied to citizens because of their race or color or because they were once enslaved.Reconstruction Act – Southern states had to ratify the 14th Amendment, African American men must be allowed to vote,…Johnson vetoed these acts & Congress overrode his veto; Congress eventually tried to impeach him
11Changes in the SouthSouthern Republicans (scalawags), whites from the North (carpetbaggers), & freed African Americans played important roles in southern governments.Ku Klux Klan (KKK) -- formed by white southerners to help them regain power & to keep African Americans and White Republicans out of office.Landless black and white sharecroppers became locked in a cycle of poverty.Sharecroppers: person who farms land owned by another in exchange for a share of the cropsLink to Pictures:
12Reconstruction EndsReconstruction ended after presidential candidate Rutherford B. Hayes made a private deal with southern politicians.After Reconstruction, a new industrial economy began to emerge in the South.Southern whites pass new laws to deny African Americans equal rights.Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, & Grandfather ClausesSegregation, Jim Crow Laws, LynchingCivil Rights Movement (100 years later)
13Civil War Pictures from the National Archives http://www. archives Many Reconstruction