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Transcultural Nursing Care Meeting the spiritual needs, and religious differences of your patients.

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Presentation on theme: "Transcultural Nursing Care Meeting the spiritual needs, and religious differences of your patients."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transcultural Nursing Care Meeting the spiritual needs, and religious differences of your patients.

2 Spirituality and Religion A persons spirit: is the very essence of the person, the life force, and includes the beliefs and values which provide strength and hope for that person Religion tries to make rules and capture the experience of spirituality into a defined system

3 Providing Spiritual Care Involves helping patients develop awareness and maintain the following: Inner strength Self awareness Lifes meaning and purpose Relationship to others Relationship to higher power

4 Identifying your patients spiritual care needs Crisis situations often arise in acute care areas. Patients beliefs and values affect how they respond to these crisis, their attitude towards treatment and their rate of recovery.

5 Nurses should be alert to the following when assessing for spiritual needs Hospitalization Patients who are in pain Patients with chronic or incurable disease Patients who are dying Families who have experienced the death of a loved one Patients who are facing an undesirable outcome of illness, such as amputation Patients who have lost control of themselves

6 Spiritual Care Interventions Ask open ended questions Actively listen to the patient, sit beside the patient and maintain eye contact Be nonjudgmental of patients and their responses Avoid giving advice or a lecture to patients Be aware of nonverbal messages from the patient Expect to learn from patients

7 Spiritual Care Interventions Understand the feelings of your patients but avoid adopting those feelings for yourself Stay with patient after the person has received an unfavorable diagnosis Assist the patient to participate in desired religious/spiritual rituals Protect the patients religious/spiritual articles

8 Western Religions in the United States and Canada Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are common western religions that patients often practice

9 Judaism Oldest faith to have belief in one God. The Holy Books of the Jews are the Torah and the Talmud Followers of Judaism are called Jews Jewish clergy are called rabbis Jews worship in buildings called temples or synagogues

10 Judaism The major divisions of Judaism are the following three: Orthodox Judaism – follow the traditional faith and strictly adhere to rituals, including kosher diet and keeping of the Sabbath, they do not completely integrate into modern society, Jewish identity is passed on through the mother Conservative Judaism – follows most traditional practices but adapt traditions to modern world

11 Judaism Reform Judaism – stress the ethical and moral teachings of the prophets and autonomy of the individual. Rituals are performed which will promote a Jewish God filled life. Allow Jewish identity to be passed on from the fathers side as well – largest and fastest growing segment of Judaism

12 Judaism General beliefs Believe in God but not in Christ Avoid references to heaven and Jesus Sabbath is from sunset Friday until after sunset Saturday if observed. Dietary rules are Kosher – separate utensils for preparing and serving meat and milk dishes

13 Judaism Meat may be consumed a few minutes after drinking milk, but 6 hours must pass after eating meat before drinking milk Some Jews will avoid eating pork, ham, Canadian bacon, eel, oysters, crab, lobster, shrimp, or eggs with blood spots

14 Christianity Belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God Followers are called Christians The Bible is the sacred book and is divided into the Old and New Testament Baptism is the rite of admission to the Christian community and may be performed if an infant is felt to be near death by anyone with the right intention

15 Judaism Dying patient – family and friends may want to be with the patient at all times Some do not believe in autopsies, embalming, or cremation Some Jews will not want the nurse to touch the body of a dead Jew and will want the Burial Society to complete the preparation If nurse must touch body wear gloves

16 Christianity Three major divisions: Catholicism Clergy are called Priest Protestantism Clergy are called ministers, pastors Eastern Orthodox Clergy are Bishops, Priest, and Deacons

17 Roman Catholic Baptism is necessary for salvation Dietary Restrictions: if 14 years of age or older are to abstain from meat on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays during Lent. Catholic from 14 – 59 are to fast (eat one full meal and two lighter ones on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday Fasting and abstaining is excused during hospitalization

18 Roman Catholic Death – patients may wish to receive the last sacrament of the Christian, in addition to the anointing of the sick by a Priest Cremation and organ donation are allowed

19 Eastern Orthodox Baptism is necessary for salvation Dietary restrictions: abstain from meat and dairy products on Wednesdays and Fridays during Lent. Ill Patients are excused from this requirement Dying patient – Last Rites are obligatory and performed by Priest, preferably while patient is conscious. Autopsy and organ donation are not encouraged Euthanasia and cremation are discouraged

20 Protestant Old Order Amish Assembly of God Baptist Episcopalian Lutheran Methodist Presbyterian Quakers Seventh Day Adventist United Church of Christ

21 Protestants Emphasize individual responsibility and conscience over following tradition or religious authority Follow the Bible Food is individual choice Death – Personal choice of patient and family, clergy my visit. Organ donation, autopsy, burial, and cremation individual choice

22 Islam Muslims believe in one God called Allah Holy Book is the Koran Muslims pray in Arabic and worship in Mosques The Imam is the leader of the Muslim population

23 Islam Follow the Five Pillars of Faith The Profession of Faith – verbal pledge that there is only one God, Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. (Muslims mothers may whisper this pledge into a newborns ear.) Prayer – called to prayer 5 times per day Almsgiving – annual payment of a certain percentage of a Muslims wealth and assets and is distributed among the poor Fasting – During Ramadan, the 9 th month of the Islamic calendar, adult Muslims abstain from dawn to sunset from food, drink and sexual activity Pilgrimage – adult Muslims who are physically and financial able are expected to perform pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in lifetime

24 Islam Pray to Allah 5 times per day (after dawn, at noon, in mid afternoon, after sunset and at night If patient request to face Mecca, bed or chair may be positioned in a southeast direction from the United States If the Koran is in the room do not touch it or place anything on top of it.

25 Islam If Muslims wear writings from Koran on a black string around the neck, arm, or waist, these writings need to be kept dry and remain on the patient Rules of cleanliness may include eating with the right hand and cleansing self with the left hand after urinating and defacating

26 Islam Dietary – some Muslims will not eat pork and pork products, eel, oyster, crab, lobster, shrimp, and meats from animals that have not been bled to death by a Muslim

27 Islam Death practices: Women may be barred from the room of a dying family member Family may pray for dying member and Imam usually reads from the Koran for the patient after death After death family washes the body including all orifices Nurse may touch body only after donning gloves Body is wrapped in white cloth for burial Family may not permit organ donation, autopsies, or cremation No embalming after death Try to bury the dead within 24 hours

28 Important points on other various Religious groups Christian Scientist – No clergy – but may request a Christian Scientist practitioner to give treatment with prayer No baptism Consider the Lords Supper a spiritual communion with God and may sit quietly during this time. No smoking or drinking alcohol Do not accept blood transfusions or surgery Feel studying Eddys book and the Bible will heal them

29 Jehovah Witness Baptism necessary for salvation Beliefs based on the Bible No ordained ministers No churches but worship in Kingdom Halls Publications include Awake and Watch Tower Refuse blood products including plasma, will accept blood transfusion alternatives Alcohol and tobacco are discouraged Believe soul dies at death Autopsy decided by family Cremation is acceptable Organ transplants personal decision – must be cleansed with non blood solution

30 Mormons The Book of Mormon is considered complimentary to Bible Worship in temples and tabernacles No ordained clergy High priests are members of the Church and form the Council of Twelve and exert spiritual leadership May avoid alcohol, tobacco, coffee and tea Baptism is necessary for salvation No restrictions on blood, or medications, may use herbal medicines, organ donation permitted Promote dignified death, organ donation personal choice, autopsy permitted with consent of family, burial in temple clothes

31 Eastern Religions in the United States and Canada Buddhist Illness result of Karma (cause and effect) Foods – extremes are to be avoided –many do not eat meat No restrictions on blood or medical therapy, organ donation is allowed Death – body is shell(treat with respect), autopsy and burials are personal wishes – burial and cremation allowed, ensure calm and peaceful death – it is important for family members to relate that patient had calm and peaceful death

32 Hindu Some may wear a thread on the torso that should not be removed except in annual ceremony Daily bathing but not after a meal Most are vegetarians Right hand used for eating, left is used for cleansing Medication, blood and blood products, donation, and receipt of organs acceptable

33 Hindu Patient should be allowed to die peacefully Believe in rebirth Autopsy and organ donation acceptable Immediately after death priest may pour water into mouth of corpse and family may wash body Cremation common, ashes disposed of in holy river Priests unlikely to be involved with illness

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