Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Discovering Cells Looking Inside Cells"— Presentation transcript:
1Table of Contents Discovering Cells Looking Inside Cells Chemical Compounds in CellsThe Cell in Its Environment
2Development of the Cell Theory - Discovering CellsDevelopment of the Cell TheoryThe cell theory states the following:All living things are composed of cells.Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.All cells are produced from other cells.
3Click the SciLinks button for links on the cell theory. - Discovering CellsLinks on Cell TheoryClick the SciLinks button for links on the cell theory.
4Nucleus - Looking Inside Cells The nucleus is the cell’s control center, directing all of the cell’s activities.
5Mitochondrion - Looking Inside Cells Mitochondria are known as the “powerhouses” of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions.
6Endoplasmic Reticulum - Looking Inside CellsEndoplasmic ReticulumThe endoplasmic reticulum is similar to the system of hallways in a building. Proteins and other materials move throughout the cell by way of the endoplasmic reticulum. The spots on this organelle are ribosomes, which produce proteins.
8Golgi Body - Looking Inside Cells The Golgi bodies receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell.
9Previewing Visuals - Looking Inside Cells Before you read, preview Figure 12. Then write two questions you have about the illustrations in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions.Plant and Animal CellsQ. How are animal cells different from plant cells?A. Plants cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts, which animal cells to not have.Q. What do mitochondria do?A. Mitochondria convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use.
10Elements and Compounds - Chemical Compounds in CellsElements and CompoundsCarbon dioxide, which is found in gas bubbles, is a chemical compound. So is water.
11Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals - Chemical Compounds in CellsCompounds in Bacteria and MammalsAll cells contain carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, as well as water and other inorganic compounds. But do all cells contain the same percentages of these compounds? The graph compares the percentage of some compounds found in a bacterial cell and a cell from a mammal.
12Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals - Chemical Compounds in CellsCompounds in Bacteria and MammalsReading Graphs:What do the red bars represent? What do the blue bars represent?Red bars represent percentages of compounds in bacterial cells; blue bars represent percentages of compounds in mammalian cells.
13Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals - Chemical Compounds in CellsCompounds in Bacteria and MammalsInterpreting Data:What percentage of a mammalian cell is made up of water? How does this compare to the percentage of water in a bacterial cell?About 70%; the percentages are the same.
14Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals - Chemical Compounds in CellsCompounds in Bacteria and MammalsInterpreting Data:Which kind of compound–proteins or nucleic acids–makes up the larger percentage of a mammalian cell?Proteins
15Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals - Chemical Compounds in CellsCompounds in Bacteria and MammalsDrawing Conclusions:In general, how do a bacterial cell and mammalian cell compare in their chemical composition?They are similar, though mammalian cells have a lower percentage of nucleic acids, and bacterial cells have a lower percentage of lipids and fewer proteins.
16Water and Living Things - Chemical Compounds in CellsWater and Living ThingsAbout two-thirds of the human body is water.
17Comparing and Contrasting - Chemical Compounds in CellsComparing and ContrastingAs you read, compare and contrast carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in a table like the one below.Type of CompoundElementsFunctionsStore and provide energy and make up cellular partsCarbohydrateCarbon, hydrogen, oxygenMake up much of the structure of cells and speed up chemical reactionsProteinCarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfurLipidCarbon, hydrogen, oxygenStore energy
18Click the SciLinks button for links on proteins. - Chemical Compounds in CellsLinks on ProteinsClick the SciLinks button for links on proteins.
19Ratios - The Cell in Its Environment The concentration of a solution can be expressed as a ratio. A ratio compares two numbers. It tells you how much you have of one item in comparison to another. For example, suppose you dissolve 5 g of sugar in 1 L of water. You can express the concentration of the solution in ratio form as 5 g:1 L, or 5 g/L.Practice ProblemSuppose you dissolve 7 g of salt in 1 L of water. Express the concentration of the solution as a ratio.7 g:1 L or 7 g/L
20A Selective Barrier - The Cell in Its Environment The cell membrane protects the contents of the cell and helps control the materials that enter and leave.