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Cell Structure and Function Discovering Cells Looking Inside Cells Chemical Compounds in Cells The Cell in Its Environment Table of Contents.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure and Function Discovering Cells Looking Inside Cells Chemical Compounds in Cells The Cell in Its Environment Table of Contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure and Function Discovering Cells Looking Inside Cells Chemical Compounds in Cells The Cell in Its Environment Table of Contents

2 Cell Structure and Function - Discovering Cells Development of the Cell Theory The cell theory states the following: All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. All cells are produced from other cells.

3 Cell Structure and Function Links on Cell Theory Click the SciLinks button for links on the cell theory. - Discovering Cells

4 Cell Structure and Function - Looking Inside Cells Nucleus The nucleus is the cells control center, directing all of the cells activities.

5 Cell Structure and Function Mitochondrion Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions. - Looking Inside Cells

6 Cell Structure and Function Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum is similar to the system of hallways in a building. Proteins and other materials move throughout the cell by way of the endoplasmic reticulum. The spots on this organelle are ribosomes, which produce proteins. - Looking Inside Cells

7 Cell Structure and Function Plant and Animal Cells - Looking Inside Cells

8 Cell Structure and Function Golgi Body The Golgi bodies receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell. - Looking Inside Cells

9 Cell Structure and Function Before you read, preview Figure 12. Then write two questions you have about the illustrations in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions. Q. How are animal cells different from plant cells? A. Plants cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts, which animal cells to not have. Q. What do mitochondria do? A. Mitochondria convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use. Plant and Animal Cells - Looking Inside Cells Previewing Visuals

10 Cell Structure and Function - Chemical Compounds in Cells Elements and Compounds Carbon dioxide, which is found in gas bubbles, is a chemical compound. So is water.

11 Cell Structure and Function Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals All cells contain carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, as well as water and other inorganic compounds. But do all cells contain the same percentages of these compounds? The graph compares the percentage of some compounds found in a bacterial cell and a cell from a mammal. - Chemical Compounds in Cells

12 Cell Structure and Function Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals Red bars represent percentages of compounds in bacterial cells; blue bars represent percentages of compounds in mammalian cells. Reading Graphs: What do the red bars represent? What do the blue bars represent? - Chemical Compounds in Cells

13 Cell Structure and Function Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals About 70%; the percentages are the same. Interpreting Data: What percentage of a mammalian cell is made up of water? How does this compare to the percentage of water in a bacterial cell? - Chemical Compounds in Cells

14 Cell Structure and Function Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals Proteins Interpreting Data: Which kind of compound– proteins or nucleic acids– makes up the larger percentage of a mammalian cell? - Chemical Compounds in Cells

15 Cell Structure and Function Compounds in Bacteria and Mammals They are similar, though mammalian cells have a lower percentage of nucleic acids, and bacterial cells have a lower percentage of lipids and fewer proteins. Drawing Conclusions: In general, how do a bacterial cell and mammalian cell compare in their chemical composition? - Chemical Compounds in Cells

16 Cell Structure and Function Water and Living Things About two-thirds of the human body is water. - Chemical Compounds in Cells

17 Cell Structure and Function Type of Compound ElementsFunctions As you read, compare and contrast carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in a table like the one below. Carbohydrate Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Store and provide energy and make up cellular parts Protein Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur Make up much of the structure of cells and speed up chemical reactions Lipid Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Store energy - Chemical Compounds in Cells Comparing and Contrasting

18 Cell Structure and Function Links on Proteins Click the SciLinks button for links on proteins. - Chemical Compounds in Cells

19 Cell Structure and Function Ratios The concentration of a solution can be expressed as a ratio. A ratio compares two numbers. It tells you how much you have of one item in comparison to another. For example, suppose you dissolve 5 g of sugar in 1 L of water. You can express the concentration of the solution in ratio form as 5 g:1 L, or 5 g/L. Practice Problem Suppose you dissolve 7 g of salt in 1 L of water. Express the concentration of the solution as a ratio. 7 g:1 L or 7 g/L - The Cell in Its Environment

20 Cell Structure and Function - The Cell in Its Environment A Selective Barrier The cell membrane protects the contents of the cell and helps control the materials that enter and leave.

21 Cell Structure and Function types made ofinclude Graphic Organizer Organic Compounds Carbo- hydrates LipidsProteins Starches Amino acids Sugars Fats, oils, and waxes DNA Nucleic acids RNA


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