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Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Chapter 3. Limiting Factors Any abiotic or biotic actor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution.

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Presentation on theme: "Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Chapter 3. Limiting Factors Any abiotic or biotic actor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Chapter 3

2 Limiting Factors Any abiotic or biotic actor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms

3 Examples of Limiting Factors Sunlight Food Water

4 Range of Tolerance The range of environmental conditions in which an organism can live and reproduce.

5 Where will you find the greatest diversity? Least # of organisms?

6 Comparison Limiting Factors Are biotic or abiotic factors that LIMIT the growth of a species. Range of Tolerance Determined by the limiting factors that affect a species.

7 Ecological Succession The process by which an existing ecosystem is gradually and progressively replaced by another ecosystem

8 Primary Succession The development of biotic communities in a previously uninhabited and barren habitat with little or no soil. Ex. After lava flow

9 Pioneer Species First organisms to appear in primary succession Help to create the soil by secreting acid to break down rock Ex. Lichens (fungi/algae combo) & Mosses

10 Climax Community A relatively stable collection of plants and animals These will change due to environmental factors such as fires, floods, winds, tsunamis, hurricanes, droughts, and other natural disasters.

11 Secondary Succession The development of biotic communities in an area where the natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but where soil is present. Ex. After a fire

12 See figure on Page 64

13 Comparison Primary Succession The establishment of a community in an area with no soil. Secondary Succession The establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed.

14 Where are the most pioneer species? What usually appears last?

15 Biomes Ecosystems identified by their climax community

16 Climate The average year-after-year conditions of temperature & precipitation in a particular region The variation of climate primarily depends upon the angle of incoming sunlight

17 Types Terrestrial of Biomes Tundra Boreal Forest Temperate Forest Temperate Woodlands Temperate Grassland Desert

18 Types Terrestrial of Biomes Tropical Savanna Tropical Seasonal Forest Tropical Rain Forest *Mountains *Polar Region

19 Comparison Temperate Mild temperatures, temperatures are not extreme. Tropical Hot & Humid

20 Aquatic Biomes Fresh Water –Rivers and Streams Flowing Water –Lakes and Ponds Standing Water

21 Freshwater Zones Littoral Limnetic Profundal Benthic

22 Freshwater Zones

23 Aquatic Biomes Marine –Intertidal Zone –Open Ocean Photic Zone Aphotic Zone Benthic Zone Abyssal Zone –Costal Ocean and Coral Reef

24

25 Transitional Zones Wetlands Estuary


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