2CommunityCommunity: A collection of several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment.
3Limiting FactorsFactors that affect an organism’s ability to survive in its environment, such as the availability of water and food, predators, and temperature, are called limiting factors.A limiting factor is any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or disturbance of organisms.
4Ranges of ToleranceThe ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors is known as tolerance
5Ecological Succession Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances.As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community.
6Ecological Succession Ecological succession is the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time.Primary succession takes place on bare rock surfaces where no soil exists. Pioneer species are the first species to live in these areas.Secondary succession occurs when a disturbance changes a community without removing soil.
9Biotic and Abiotic Factors Organisms in ecosystems are affected by both biotic and abiotic factors.Biotic factors are all of the living things with which organisms interact.Abiotic factors are nonliving, physical things. (Ex. temperature and soil type)Together, biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which and organism lives.
10Abiotic and Biotic Factors Abiotic FactorsBiotic FactorsECOSYSTEM
12ClimateIn the atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, and other environmental factors combine to produce weather and climate.Weather: is the day-to-day condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a certain time and place.Climate: is the average yearly condition of temperature and precipitation in a region.Climate affects ecosystems.
13The Greenhouse EffectCarbon dioxide and other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range.These gases function like the glass windows of a greenhouse.The trapping of heat by gases in the atmosphere is called the greenhouse effect.This greenhouse effect helps temperatures on Earth stay within a range that supports life.
15The Effect of Latitude on Climate Latitude also affects climate. Earth has 3 main climate zones: polar, temperate, and tropical.Polar Zones are cold areas where the sun’s rays strike Earth at a very long angle.Temperate Zones sit between the polar zones and the tropics. The climate in these zones ranges from hot to cold, depending on the season.The Tropical Zones or tropics, is near the equator. The climate here is almost always warm.
16The Effect of Latitude on Climate 90°N North PoleSunlight66.5°NArctic circleSunlightTropic of Cancer23.5°NEquatorMost direct sunlight0°Tropic of Capricorn23.5°SSunlightArctic circle66.5°SSunlight90°S South Pole
17Heat Transport in the Biosphere Unequal heating of Earth’s surface also causes winds and ocean currents.Wind and ocean currents move heat through the biosphere.
18BiomesA biome is a group of land communities that covers a large area and has a certain soil type and climateWithin a biome, there maybe microclimatesA microclimate is a small area where the climate differs from that of the surrounding area.
19The Major Biomes There are ten major biomes: Tropical Rain Forest, Tropical Dry Forest, Tropical SavannaDesertTemperate Grassland, Temperate Woodland and Shrubland, Temperate ForestNorthwestern Coniferous Forest, Boreal Forest (or Taiga)TundraEach biome has its own set of abiotic factors and a typical collection of organisms.Some areas, such as mountains and polar ice caps, do not fall neatly into the major biomes
20Compare/Contrast Table of Biomes Ten Major BiomesBiomePrecipitationTemperatureSoilDiversityTreesGrassesTropical Rain ForesthighhotpoordensesparseTropical Dry ForestvariablemildrichmoderatemediumTropical SavannaclayDesertlowTemperate Grasslandsummer hotabsentTemperate woodland and Shrublandsummer low, winter moderateTemperate Forestsummer moderate, winter coldNorthwestern Coniferous Forestsummer mild, winter coldrocky, acidicBoreal Forestsummer mild, winter coolpoor, acidicTundrasummer mild, winter cold
21The World’s Major Land Biomes Tropical rain forestTemperate grasslandTemperate forestTundraTropical dry forestDesertNorthwesternconiferous forestMountains andice capsTropical savannaTemperate woodlandand shrublandBoreal forest(Taiga)
22Aquatic BiomesUnlike land biomes, which are grouped geographically, aquatic biomes are grouped by the abiotic factors that affect them.Aquatic biomes are described mainly by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry of their water.
23Aquatic EnergyIn many aquatic biomes, tiny free-floating swimming organisms can be found. These organisms are called plankton.There are 2 types of plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton)Phytoplankton are single-celled algae that use nutrients in water to make food. They form the base of many aquatic food webs.Zooplankton are animals that feed on phytoplankton
24Aquatic Biomes There are 3 main groups of aquatic biomes: 1. Freshwater biomes can be divided into several types.Flowing-water biomes (rivers and streams) flow over land.Standing-water biomes include lakes and pondsFreshwater wetlands include bogs, marshes, and swamps. In wetlands, water covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of year.
26Aquatic BiomesEstuaries are wetlands formed where rivers meet the sea. They contain a mixture of fresh and salt water. Most food made in estuaries enters food webs as tiny pieces of organic matter, called detritus.Salt marshes are temperate estuaries. Salt-tolerant grasses and sea grasses are the dominant plant life in salt marshes.Mangrove swamps are tropical estuaries. The dominant plant life in mangrove swamps includes several species of salt-tolerant trees, called mangroves, and sea grasses.
27Aquatic BiomesMarine biomes exist in the ocean. The ocean is divided into zones based on how much light penetrates the water.The photic zone is the well-lit upper layer of water. Photosynthesis can take place here.The aphotic zone is the permanently dark lower layer of water. Producers here use chemosynthesis to make food.
28OceansThe ocean is also divided into zones based on depth and distance from shore: the intertidal zone, the coastal ocean, and the open ocean, and benthic zone.
29Marine BiomesOrganisms in the intertidal zone are exposed to regular and extreme changes in their surroundings. (tides)The coastal zone is relatively shallow, lies entirely within the photic zone, and is often rich in plankton and other organisms. Coral reefs grow in tropical coastal oceans.
30Marine BiomesThe open ocean is the largest zone, covering more than 90 percent of the surface area of the world’s oceans. These areas typically have low levels of nutrients and support only small producers.Benthic zone is the bottom of the ocean, contains organisms that live attached to or near the bottom.
31Zones of a Marine Biomes landPhotic zone200mCoastalocean1000mOpenocean4000mAphotic zone6000mOceantrench10,000mContinentalshelfContinental slope andcontinental riseAbyssalplain