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Science Warm-up 3/19/2012 ~52. There is a dead man lying in the desert next to a rock. What happened? 62. Two children born in the same hospital, in the.

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Presentation on theme: "Science Warm-up 3/19/2012 ~52. There is a dead man lying in the desert next to a rock. What happened? 62. Two children born in the same hospital, in the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science Warm-up 3/19/2012 ~52. There is a dead man lying in the desert next to a rock. What happened? 62. Two children born in the same hospital, in the same hour, day, and year, have the same mother and father, but are not twins. What happened?

2 ~52. The dead man is Superman; the rock is Green Kryptonite. Invent a reasonable scenario from there. ~62. The children are two of a set of triplets.

3 Chapter 3: Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems. Wood

4 Chapter 3 Overview Big Idea: Limiting factors and ranges of tolerance are factors that determine where terrestrial biome and aquatic biomes exist. Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems

5 Section 1: Community Ecology Main idea: All living organisms are limited by factors in the environment. Key Concepts: – Communities p.60 – Ecological Succession p.62

6 Community A biological community is a group of interacting populations that occupy the same area at the same time. Communities are affected by things called limiting factors.

7 Limiting Factors Any abiotic factor or biotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms is called a limiting factor. Includes sunlight, climate, temperature, water, nutrients, fire, soil chemistry, and space, and other living things


9 Range of Tolerance An upper limit and lower limit that define the conditions in which an organism can survive The ability of any organism to survive when subjected to abiotic factors or biotic factors is called tolerance.


11 Ecological Succession The change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another as a result of changing abiotic and biotic factors is ecological succession. There are two types of ecological succession—primary succession and secondary succession.


13 Primary Succession The establishment of a community in an area of exposed rock that does not have any topsoil is primary succession. Lichens 

14 Secondary Succession The orderly and predictable change that takes place after a community of organisms has been removed but the soil has remained intact is secondary succession.


16 Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Main Idea: Ecosystems on land are grouped into biomes primarily based on the plant communities in them. Key Concepts: – Effects of Latitude and Climate p. 65 – Major Land Biomes p. 66 – Other Terrestrial Biomes p. 72

17 Latitude The distance any point on the surface of the Earth north or south from the equator is latitude.

18 Climate The average weather conditions in an area, including temperature and precipitation, describe the area’s climate. Remember, this is the type of clothes you would find in your closet for a season.

19 This graph shows how temperature and precipitation influence the communities

20 Major Land Biomes Biomes are classified by 3 things: – Their plants – The temperature – The amount of precipitation.

21 Tundra The tundra is a treeless biomes with a layer of frozen soil below called permafrost. Avg temp: -34 to -12 degrees Celsius Avg precipitation: 15-25cm per year Abiotic factors: soggy summers; permafrost; cold and dark much of the year


23 Boreal Forest Avg Precipitation: 30-84cm per year Avg Temp: -54 to 21 degrees Celsius Abiotic factors: summers are short and moist; winters are long, cold, and dry


25 Temperate Forest Average precipitation: 75–150 cm per year Temperature range: -30°C to 30°C Abiotic factors: well-defined seasons; summers are hot, winters are cold


27 Temperate Shrubland Average precipitation: 38–100 cm per year Temperature range: 10°C to 40°C Abiotic factors: summers are very hot and dry; winters are cool and wet


29 Temperate Grassland Average precipitation: 50–89 cm per year Temperature range: -40°C–38°C Abiotic factors: summers are hot; winters are cold; moderate rainfall; fires possible


31 Desert Average precipitation: 2–26 cm per year Temperature range: high: 20°C to 49°C; low: -18°C to 10°C Abiotic factors: varying temperatures; low rainfall


33 Tropical Savanna Average precipitation: 50–130 cm per year Temperature range: 20°C to 30°C Abiotic factors: summers are hot and rainy; winters are cool and dry


35 Tropical Seasonal Forest Average precipitation: >200 cm per year Temperature range: 20°C–25°C Abiotic factors: rainfall is seasonal


37 Tropical Rain Forest Average precipitation: 200–1000 cm per year Temperature range: 24°C to 27°C Abiotic factors: humid all year; hot and a lot of precipitation


39 Mountains Biomes on mountains change with an increase of elevation.

40 Polar Regions

41 Section 3: Aquatic Biomes Main Idea: Aquatic ecosystems are grouped based on abiotic factors such as water flow, depth, distance from shore, salinity and latitude. Key Concepts: – Freshwater ecosystems p. 74 – Transitional ecosystems p. 78 – Marine ecosystems p. 79

42 Freshwater Ecosystems

43 Rivers and Streams The water flows in one direction, beginning at a source called a headwater and travelling to the mouth, where the flowing water empties into a larger body of water. The faster the water, the lower the number of organisms.

44 Fast-moving rivers and streams prevent much accumulation of organic materials and sediment.


46 Lakes and Ponds The temperature of lakes and ponds varies depending on the season.

47 3 Zones of Lakes Littoral zone- area closest to shore Limnetic zone- open water, well lit Profundal zone- deepest area, coldest

48 Transitional Aquatic Ecosystems Estuaries- where freshwater from a stream mixes with saltwater.

49 Intertidal Zone The narrow band where ocean and land meet.

50 Open Oceans Photic- with sunlight Aphotic- without sunlight Benthic zone: area on the bottom of the ocean containing sand, silt, and dead organisms. Abyssal zone: deepest zone of ocean.



53 Coastal Ocean and Coral Reef Coral reefs are natural barriers that protect shorelines from erosion.

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