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Chapter 3. Section 1 Vocabulary Community Limiting Factor Tolerance Ecological Succession Primary Succession Climax Community Secondary Succession.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3. Section 1 Vocabulary Community Limiting Factor Tolerance Ecological Succession Primary Succession Climax Community Secondary Succession."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3

2 Section 1 Vocabulary Community Limiting Factor Tolerance Ecological Succession Primary Succession Climax Community Secondary Succession

3 Section 1 Community Ecology I. Communities A. Limiting Factors 1. Factors that affect an organism’s ability to survive in its environment 2. Factors that limit one population may indirectly effect another population

4 B. Range of Tolerance 1. The ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in all factors II. Ecological Succession A. Primary Succession 1. Occurs in stages 2. Takes place on land where there are no living organisms 3. Pioneer species are the first species 4. Primary succession slows down and reaches equilibrium 5. Climax community may last for hundreds of years 6. Changes are balanced as long as nothing drastic happens

5 B. Secondary Succession 1. Happens after an existing community is severely disrupted 2. Community of organisms changes 3. Takes place in areas that previously contained life and on land that still contains soil 4. Normally quicker than primary succession

6 Section 2 Vocabulary Weather Latitude Climate Tundra Boreal Forest Temperate Forest Woodland Grassland Desert Tropical Savanna Tropical Seasonal Forest Tropical Rain Forest

7 Section 3 Vocabulary Sediment Littoral Zone Limnetic Zone Plankton Profoundal Zone Wetlands Estuary Intertidal Zone Photic Zone Aphotic Zone Benthic Zone Abyssal Zone

8 Section 3 Aquatic Ecosystems I. The Water on Earth II. Freshwater Ecosystems A. Rivers and Streams 1. About 2.5% of water on Earth is freshwater 2. About 70% of the freshwater is in glacier form, about 30% is groundwater, and less than 1% is in lakes, ponds, rivers, etc. 3. Water flows in one direction in rivers and streams (headwater towards the mouth) 4. Fewer species live in rapidly moving water

9 B. Lakes and Ponds 1. An inland body of standing water 2. In the summer, water on top is warmer than water below 3. Oligotrophic lakes are normally found high in mountains (nutrient poor) 4. Eutrophic lakes are usually found at lower altitudes (nutrient rich) 5. Ponds and lakes are divided into 3 zones based on the amount of sunlight that penetrates the water 6. Littoral zone: water is shallow and sunlight is allowed to reach the bottom 7. Limnetic zone: open water area and is well lit 8. Profundal zone: minimal light; deepest part of the lake; much colder and lower in oxygen than other 2 zones

10 III. Transitional Aquatic Ecosystem A. Wetlands 1. Areas saturated with water 2. High levels of specie diversity B. Estuaries 1. One of the most diverse ecosystems 2. Algae, seaweed, and marshes are dominant producers IV. Marine Ecosystem A. Intertidal Zone 1. Broken up into more zones: low tide zone, mid-tide zone, high tide zone, and the spray zone 2. Spray zone is the driest and only during high tide does it get sprayed; not much life here 3. Low tide zone is the most populated

11 B. Open Ocean Ecosystem 1. 3 zones in the open ocean are the pelagic zone, abyssal zone, and benthic zone 2. The photic zone (euphotic zone) is found inside the pelagic zone; shallow and sunlight can penetrate 3. As depth increases, light decreases 4. Sunlight does not penetrate the aphotic zone 5. Constant darkness, and generally is cold 6. In shallow benthic zones, sunlight can penetrate 7. Species diversity decreases 8. Abyssal zone is the deepest region of the ocean

12 C. Coastal Ocean and Coral Reefs 1. Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems 2. Protect shore lines from erosion 3. Corals are the dominant organism; soft-bodied invertebrates that live in the stone-like structure 4. Coral polyps have a symbiotic realationship with algae called zooxanthellae 5. Algae provides food for the coral, and the coral protects the algae 6. Coral reefs are very sensitive to environmental changes


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