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Chapter 50: An Introduction to Ecology & Biosphere Ecology Scientific study of the interactions between organisms & their environment Scientific study.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 50: An Introduction to Ecology & Biosphere Ecology Scientific study of the interactions between organisms & their environment Scientific study."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 50: An Introduction to Ecology & Biosphere Ecology Scientific study of the interactions between organisms & their environment Scientific study of the interactions between organisms & their environment **Environment= biotic & abiotic factors Difficult to conduct experiments & control variables Difficult to conduct experiments & control variables Test hypothesis by manipulation of field populations & communities Test hypothesis by manipulation of field populations & communities Use of mathematical models Use of mathematical models Manipulation of models to simulate long term effects Manipulation of models to simulate long term effects

2 Subfields of ecology Organism ecology Organism ecology response of organism to abiotic factors response of organism to abiotic factors Physiological/morphological ecology Physiological/morphological ecology Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary ecology Behavioral ecology Behavioral ecology Population ecology Population ecology examines factors influencing population size examines factors influencing population size Community ecology Community ecology studies interactions (predation, competition, disease, etc.) of all organisms in an area studies interactions (predation, competition, disease, etc.) of all organisms in an area Ecosystem ecology Ecosystem ecology focuses on energy flow & chemical cycling between abiotic factors & communities focuses on energy flow & chemical cycling between abiotic factors & communities

3 Biotic factors influencing biomes Predation Predation Parasitism Parasitism Disease Disease Competition Competition Dependence on other species (ex. Pollinators) Dependence on other species (ex. Pollinators) Abiotic factors influencing biomes Temperature Temperature Varies regionally Varies regionally Influences metabolism Influences metabolism Most organisms unable to regulate body temperature Most organisms unable to regulate body temperature Endothermic organisms function best at temp to which they are adapted Endothermic organisms function best at temp to which they are adapted Water Water Precipitation patterns vary regionally Precipitation patterns vary regionally Aquatic organisms contend with osmoregularity Aquatic organisms contend with osmoregularity Terrestrial organisms contend with desiccation Terrestrial organisms contend with desiccation Sunlight Sunlight Latitudinal & seasonal variations affect organisms Latitudinal & seasonal variations affect organisms Affects producer distribution which influences other organisms Affects producer distribution which influences other organisms Cues seasonal behavioral events Cues seasonal behavioral events

4 Wind Wind Global air circulation & wind patterns differ regionally Global air circulation & wind patterns differ regionally Effects evaporation, convection, transpiration, & morphology of organisms Effects evaporation, convection, transpiration, & morphology of organisms Rocks & soil Rocks & soil Minerals, pH & physical structures affect distribution of plants & therefore animals Minerals, pH & physical structures affect distribution of plants & therefore animals Fires, hurricanes, natural disasters Fires, hurricanes, natural disasters Periodic disturbances effect biological communities Periodic disturbances effect biological communities Local/seasonal effects of climate Local/seasonal effects of climate Bodies of water, mountains, seasons affect organisms Bodies of water, mountains, seasons affect organisms Examples- lake effect snow, lake turnover Examples- lake effect snow, lake turnover

5 Aquatic biomes Occupy the largest part of the biosphere Occupy the largest part of the biosphere Marine biomes Marine biomes [NaCl]=3% [NaCl]=3% 75% of all biomes 75% of all biomes Freshwater biomes Freshwater biomes [NaCl]<1% [NaCl]<1% Vertical stratification Vertical stratification Thermocline- narrow separation between warm & cold H 2 O Thermocline- narrow separation between warm & cold H 2 O Light penetration Light penetration Photic zone- sufficient light penetration for photosynthesis Photic zone- sufficient light penetration for photosynthesis Aphotic zone- no light penetration; no photosynthesis Aphotic zone- no light penetration; no photosynthesis Open H 2 O vs. bottom Open H 2 O vs. bottom Pelagic zone- open water Pelagic zone- open water Benthic zone- bottom layer; bottom dwellers (benthos) feed off detritus (dead organic matter from upper zones) Benthic zone- bottom layer; bottom dwellers (benthos) feed off detritus (dead organic matter from upper zones) Abyssal zone- deepest region (ocean only) Abyssal zone- deepest region (ocean only)

6 Depth of H 2 O & distance from shore Depth of H 2 O & distance from shore marine marine Intertidal zone- covered by tide part of day Intertidal zone- covered by tide part of day Neritic zone- shallow regions close to shore Neritic zone- shallow regions close to shore Oceanic zone- far from shore Oceanic zone- far from shore Freshwater Freshwater Littoral zone Littoral zone shallow waters shallow waters close to shore close to shore inhabited by algae, plant, mollusk, insect, crustaceans, fish, & amphibians inhabited by algae, plant, mollusk, insect, crustaceans, fish, & amphibians Limnetic zone Limnetic zone deep waters deep waters do not support rooted plants do not support rooted plants inhabited by variety of phytoplankton & cyanobacteria inhabited by variety of phytoplankton & cyanobacteria

7 Freshwater biomes Ponds- Small bodies of standing H 2 O Ponds- Small bodies of standing H 2 O Lakes- Large bodies of standing H 2 O Lakes- Large bodies of standing H 2 O Oligotrophic lake Oligotrophic lake Deep, clear, & nutrient poor Deep, clear, & nutrient poor Mesotrophic lake Mesotrophic lake Eutrophic lake Eutrophic lake Nutrient rich; support large, productive phytoplankton community Nutrient rich; support large, productive phytoplankton community Streams & rivers- flowing habitats Streams & rivers- flowing habitats Chemical & physical characteristics vary from source to mouth Chemical & physical characteristics vary from source to mouth Wetlands- areas covered with water & supporting hydrophytes (H 2 O plants) Wetlands- areas covered with water & supporting hydrophytes (H 2 O plants) Diverse biomes Diverse biomes Important for flood control & H 2 O filtration Important for flood control & H 2 O filtration Estuaries- area where fresh H 2 O river meets the ocean Estuaries- area where fresh H 2 O river meets the ocean Often borders wetlands & are called mudflats & saltmarshes Often borders wetlands & are called mudflats & saltmarshes Salinity varies spatially & daily Salinity varies spatially & daily Diverse communities Diverse communities Breeding ground for marine invertebrates, fish, & waterfowl Breeding ground for marine invertebrates, fish, & waterfowl Marine biomes estuaries estuaries Intertidal zone Intertidal zone Coral reefs- tropical H 2 O supports highly diverse & productive communities Coral reefs- tropical H 2 O supports highly diverse & productive communities Ocean zones Ocean zones

8 Terrestrial Biomes Geographic distribution based mainly on regional variations in climate Geographic distribution based mainly on regional variations in climate Stratification Stratification Forest biomes Forest biomes Canopy Canopy Low tree stratum Low tree stratum Shrub understory Shrub understory Ground layer/forest floor litter Ground layer/forest floor litter Root layer Root layer Non-forest biomes Non-forest biomes Herbaceous layer/shrub layer Herbaceous layer/shrub layer Ground layer/forest floor litter Ground layer/forest floor litter Root layer Root layer Types of biomes Types of biomes Tundra/permafrost Tundra/permafrost Taiga/coniferous forest Taiga/coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Temperate deciduous forest Temperate grasslands Temperate grasslands Chaparral Chaparral Deserts Deserts Savannas Savannas Tropical rainforest Tropical rainforest


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