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Topical Review: Colonial Era to 1787

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1 Topical Review: Colonial Era to 1787

2 Political (Colonial Era –1763)
European Renaissance The Reformation Quest for Empire Spanish French British Dutch Chesapeake Colonies Great Migration

3 Political (Colonial Era –1763)
Colonial governments How democratic? How innovative? Founding documents? New England Confederation ( ) English Civil War Proprietary and Restoration Colonies Salutary Neglect Trend towards centralization of Empire Dominion of New England Obstacles in America Glorious Revolution in America Georgia – buffer colony

4 Economic (Colonial Era –1763)
Mercantilism Expectations Impact Navigation Acts Tobacco Culture of Chesapeake Headright system Indentured servitude/slavery Economic diversity of New England Cereal grain in Middle Colonies

5 Social/Cultural (Colonial Era –1763)
Regional distinctions and similarities Environment = economy and health Religious backgrounds Democratic/deferential Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649) Religious declension – Halfway Covenant (1662) Ethnic diversity Enlightenment Great Awakening

6 Military/Diplomatic (Colonial Era –1763)
Spanish Armada (1588) Imperial Wars/North American Wars King William’s War ( ) Queen Anne’s War ( ) King George’s War ( ) Indian Wars Powhatan Massacre (1622) (347, 1/3rd die) (1644) Pequot War (1637) King Philip’s War ( ) (1 in 20 die) French and Indian War/Albany Plan of Union

7 Some Possible DBQ/FRQ Topics

8 Puritanism John Calvin/Calvinism as inspiration Goals of Puritans
Doctrines Goals of Puritans Great Migration Values Demise Great Awakening Revivalism/Itinerant Ministry Impact

9 The Enlightenment Foundations in Scientific Revolution
Descartes and Reason Intellectual underpinnings Intellectual freedom Locke and the “tabula rasa” Natural law Deism Impact on America

10 Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England
Prior to 1763 Desire to centralize Empire Governors Proprietary Colonies Trend to Royal Status by 1770s Dominion of New England ( ) Board of Trade and Plantations (Privy Council) Mercantilism Failure to centralize (Salutary Neglect) Distance Global Nature Problems at home and abroad (Wars for Empire/English Civil War/Glorious Revolution) Frontier/rural conditions and foreign immigrants in America

11 Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England
II. By 1750 Colonists maturing politically, economically, and socially/culturally Representative assemblies 2 million people Identity Overall, Colonists still happy with English Empire Some resentment toward second class citizenship Some resentment of debt to British bankers

12 Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England
French and Indian War increases tensions British concerns American concerns 1763 British expect to enforce mercantilism British expect to centralize empire British expect to raise revenue in America Americans resist British expectations Reasons Methods Colonial Unity

13 Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England
British Reaction Parliamentary supremacy Repeal of Stamp Act Repeal of Townshend Acts (except Tea) Punishment of Massachusetts Rebellion is consequence of failure on part of colonists to obtain desired reform and on Britain’s failure to accept federalism and reality Lexington and Concord Second Continental Congress and Declaration of Independence

14 Colonial Expansion Positives
West represents adventure, opportunity and freedom Land is abundant – land=liberty/social mobility Religious dissenters find tolerance and absence of church authority Hard work (individualism and self reliance key to success) Result: America is more tolerant, democratic, and mobile

15 Colonial Expansion Negatives Poor transportation and communication
Life is hard, conditions are primitive Indian menace French hostilities Speculators East/West tension over representation, land policy, taxes, protection (Bacon, Leisler, Regulators, Paxton Boys) Result: unity is difficult

16 Colonial Expansion British close frontier in 1763 During Revolution
Treaty of Paris British motive American reaction During Revolution Western tribes fight with Britain Treaty of 1783 fixes border at Mississippi Confederation Era Western land policy major accomplishment of Articles Land Ordinance of 1785 Northwest Ordinance of 1787

17 Colonial Expansion Government under Articles cannot:
Western states begin empowering more white males Shays’s Rebellion shows East/West tensions not solved Government under Articles cannot: Force British out of forts (encourage Indian hostilities) Get spain to sign treaty allowing access to Mississippi River or right of deposit at New Orleans New Constitution creates more powerful federal government Pinckney Treaty, 1795 Whiskey Rebellion, 1794

18 Democracy in America 1750-1776 Is America democratic? Yes
Distance from England allows for autonomy and local control New England town hall meetings Colonial assemblies American environment allowed for more mobility and democracy Americans more tolerant Impact of Great Awakening Impact of the Enlightenment American Revolution

19 Democracy in America 1750-1776 Is America democratic? No Patriarchy
Slavery Poor are disfranchised Deference, especially in South South less democratic (ex. North Carolina)

20 Democracy in America Does the Revolutionary Era greatly change America? (How “revolutionary” or “radical”?) Democracy as concern for individual, natural rights and self-government Yes Radical patriots want more democracy at home and home rule State constitutions Lower property requirements for voting (ex. Mass) Increased separation of church and state Enlarge and empower lower branch of legislature

21 Democracy in America Appoint or elect more humble upper house (no blood ties; natural aristocracy) Weaken executives (or get rid of!) Lower primogeniture and entail Make titles illegal Expand public education (esp. in NE) Include bills of rights Women vote in New Jersey Northern abolition of slavery; southern manumission Radicals establish weak central government – want local control, distrust distant authority Articles No executive or courts; No tax or regulation of commerce;Weak congress; Weak military States are empowered

22 Democracy in America No – America not more democratic after 1776 Radicals make no legal provisions for women, free blacks, or slaves No alleviation of East/West tension Counterrevolution of 1787 checks radical revolution of 1776 (Beard) Stronger federal government Check of mob democracy But, all desire republican government; virtue/more faith lies within the people Democratic ratification process Bill of Rights “Revolution” of 1800

23 Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800)
Women Expanded role on frontier Ratio in South still gender imbalance Legal code favors men everywhere No vote; no property ownership once married Model traditional role in more established areas “Republican Motherhood” Overall; more choices more options than English women Remember Abigail Adams

24 Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800)
Blacks Slavery=ultimate human degradation 750,000 slaves Only blacks/Indians Legal in all colonies before 1776 Frowned upon by Quakers Not economic necessity in North, so fewer 1776 tobacco market unstable and egalitarianism raised questions Willing manumission; closing of African Slave Trade; Northern Abolition No state in south will abolish Few win freedom for fighting in Revolution as promised

25 Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800)
Blacks Word not used in Constitution 3/5’s Compromise 1808 abolition of slave trade Indians Fought in imperial wars and Revolution Capitalized on European rivalries; offered trade and hunting lands Iroquois = British; Algonquin = French Pontiac’s Rebellion Fear of land encroachment causes tribes to fight against Americans in 1776 After independence: not citizens; foreign entities; encroachment continues

26 Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800)
Non-Anglo immigrants Scots, Scots-Irish, German, French Huguenots Most settle in Middle Colonies or backcountry Many disfranchised Non-Protestant discrimination is high

27 Topical Review:

28 Political ( ) Political expectations of mother country/British system of government Political motives for Revolution Writs/privacy Admiralty courts/jury Denial of right to tax without representation Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, Tea Republicanism/self government

29 Political (1763-1800) Methods of American Resistance
Written letters, pamphlets, editorials, resolutions Threats, intimidation, violence Organizations Sons/Daughters of Liberty; Stamp Act Congress;Continental Association; Committees of Correspondence; First and Second Continental Congresses Boycott Galloway plan/Olive Branch Petition Declaration of Independence Creation of state/federal governments Process; similarities; radical/conservative victories

30 Political (1763-1800) Government policy favors westward expansion
Shays’s Rebellion=sign Federalist Era Establishment of new government/precedents; Bill of Rights; Rise of Political parties; Whiskey Rebellion; Alien and Sedition Acts; Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Rise of the two-party system (because domestic and foreign policy issues) Judiciary Act 1789 Washington’s Farewell Address Demise of the Federalists Revolution of 1800

31 Economic (1763-1800) Economic motives of mother country
Economic motives for Revolution Economic problems during Confederation Era Shays’s Rebellion; debt; interstate rivalries Class/economic/geographic divisions between federalists and anti-federalists Economic Interpretation of the Constitution – Beard Hamilton’s Program – Four main parts/opposition response Whiskey Rebellion Cotton Gin

32 Social/Cultural (1763-1800) How revolutionary was the Revolution?
Blacks; women; common men How united/how American? Literature during period Deism Meritocracy/natural aristocracy

33 The Constitution of 1787 Reasons for: Who went to Philadelphia
No enforcement Weak congress and military Inability to amend Debt/state rivalry Who went to Philadelphia Conservatives; nationalists; American leaders; wealthy/elite The Debate: Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan = Connecticut Plan/Great Compromise/Roger Sherman

34 The Constitution of 1787 The Document Ratification debates
Powers delegated Powers denied states Federalism Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Republican government/virtue of people Ratification debates Federalists vs. Anti-federalists The Federalist Papers Bill of Rights

35 Topical Review:

36 Political (1800-1860) Trend towards increasing democracy
Jeffersonian; Jacksonian (symbol of common man/changes electoral politics) Era of Good Feelings Jacksonian/Antebellum Reform Temperance; prison/asylum; education; utopian communities; abolition; Transcendentalism Rebirth of two party system Spoils System/nominating conventions/rotation Nullification Crisis Manifest Destiny/Indian Removal/Trail of Tears Increasing nationalism/increasing sectionalism Reasons/examples/impact

37 Economic (1800-1860) Violations of American shipping Reasons/results
American reaction to War of 1812 Tariff (1816); Second BUS; rise of manufacturing/decline of commerce Overall prosperous why? Expansion; King Cotton; population growth and urbanization in North; increasing technology (coal, improved transportation – canals, steamboats and rail at end of era, telegraph Lowell Mills Commonwealth v. Hunt 1842

38 Economic (1800-1860) Jackson as anti-monopoly/special interest
American System (Clay, Whigs) Tariffs of 1828/1832 Marshall court to 1835 Taney court – pro states rights (Charles River Bridge v. Warren River Bridge) Killing of the BUS California Gold Rush Economic Sectionalism

39 Social/Cultural ( ) Rise of public schools and private universities; instill American values Literary nationalism and romanticism – Irving, Cooper, Longfellow, “Fireside” poets Transcendentalism Individualism; self-reliance; non-conformity; intuition Know God through nature Active in abolition and other reforms Emerson, Thoreau Intellectual Independence

40 Social/Cultural (1800-1860) Second Great Awakening
Finney, Channing – Unitarianism Response to rationalism and deism Perfectibility of man Art is romantic too Hudson River School reflects nature, noble savage; nature=awesome Church, Audubon Society Theater/minstrel shows popular Rise of Mormons (1830, NY) Joseph Smith, Killed in Nauvoo, IL Brigham Young, Mormon Trek, 1847 (perfectibility)

41 Social/Cultural (1800-1860) Nativism
Reaction to Irish and German immigration in 1830s-50s Know-Nothings (American Party) Discrimination, especially against Irish Urbanization slowly beginning; poor conditions in cities

42 Civil War Reasons for: Expansion led to tension over slavery expansion
States rights vs. Nationalism/federalism Abolition movement led to tension over morality of slavery (Positive Good) Economic and cultural divergence of North and South

43 Civil War Key events leading to:
Colonial economies, Declaration, Constitutional debates, political/economic and cultural sectionalism Missouri Compromise 1820 Nullification Crisis 1832 Texas Annexation Mexican Cession 1848 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852, Slavery as it is (Weld), The Impending Crisis of the South (Helper) Gadsden Purchase 1853/transcontinental railroad/Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854

44 Civil War Key events leading to:
Division of Democratic Party and rise of Republican party (sectional parties) Bleeding Kansas/John Brown at Potawatomie Creek/Lecompton Constitution Sumner/Brooks Affair Dred Scott Decision 1857 Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 John Brown’s Raid 1859 Election of Lincoln 1860 Secession of South Carolina 1860, six others in early 1861, four others after Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers in late 1861

45 Civil War Key battles: Trent Affair/British and French support
Sumter; border states; Lincoln’s call for troops Manassas Shiloh Antietam Gettysburg Atlanta Wilderness-Appomattox Trent Affair/British and French support Emancipation Proclamation 1863

46 Topical Review:

47 Political (1875-1900) Republican domination (ex. Cleveland)
Lack of talent and integrity (Gilded Age, corruption/Grant and Credit Mobilier) Controversial Election 1876/Compromise of 1876/End of Reconstruction Garfield Assassination Pendleton Civil Service Reform 1883 Populist Party and platform abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, civil service reform, a working day of eight hours, Government control of all railroads, telegraphs, and telephones, free silver, federal storehouses for grain, the three “R’s Election of 1896 – Democrats co-opt Populist platform and candidate

48 Economic (1875-1900) Key is rising technology (see next topic)
Laissez-faire (Republican, pro-business ascendancy) Consolidation of businesses and farms Rise of railroad industry (national economy) Farmer discontent and revolt 1890s Bland-Allison Act (Crime of ’73) Munn v. Illinois 1877/Wabash case 1886 Greenback Party 1878 Knights of Labor form in 1886/AFL in 1886 Standard Oil Trust forms 1882 Gold discovered in Alaska 1886 Rise of Farmer’s Alliance in 1886 Haymarket Riot 1886 Interstate Commerce Act 1887 McKinley Tariff 1890/Wilson-Gorman 1894/Dingley Tariff 1897

49 Economic (1875-1900) Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890, repealed 1893
Sherman Anti-trust Act 1890 Populist Party/Platform of 1892 Homestead Steel Strike 1892 Panic of 1893 Pullman Strike (and 1,400 others) 1894 Coxey’s March 1894 Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” speech 1896

50 Industrial Revolution 1870s
Reasons For: Early Industrial Revolution of Antebellum Era causes rise of factory system and manufacturing Transportation revolution and Civil War act as catalysts Encouraged by government Republican domination/laissez-faire – favors but no regulation Urbanization and immigration provide abundant and cheap labor Technology (see list) Change in business structures Increased consolidation (horizontal and vertical)/trusts, holding companies Professional management

51 Industrial Revolution 1870s
Results of: Economic growth Economic industrial superpower Increasing prosperity for most Americans, fortunes for some Labor strife/organization Reasons Unions Farmer discontent Reasons for Organization Imperialism Need for new markets and raw materials World role/jingoism

52 Technology (1875-1900) Typewriter 1875 Telephone 1875 (Bell)
Phonograph 1878 First electric current supplied in New York 1882 Dumbbell tenement 1879 Lightbulb 1879 Mechanical twine binder 1880 Brooklyn Bridge completed 1883 Westinghouse power land and transformer 1886 Ading machine 1889 Electric elevator 1889 Color photography 1890 Electric trolley 1892 Widespread use of earlier innovations; telegraph, railroad (standard gauge, Pullman car, refrigerated car) Deere’s plow; McCormack’s reaper; barbed wire

53 Diplomatic ( ) Mahan’s Influence of Sea Power upon History 1890 Interest in Hawaii ( annexed) Pearl Harbor 1887 Samoa – Pago Pago Wake and Midway Islands Venezuelan Dispute 1895 U.S.S. Maine /de lome letter 1898 Spanish American War; Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico 1898 Teller Amendment 1898, Platt Amendment 1901 Treaty of 1899 Emilio Aguinaldo defeated 1901 Open Door Notes 1899, 1900 Naval buildup begins 1883; continues in 1890s

54 Social/Cultural (1875-1900) National Baseball League 1875
Red Cross 1881 Farmer’s Alliance/Grange 1886 Urbanization/Social Gospel Movement Hull House, tenement house Closing of the frontier (Turner, 1893); Oklahoma Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia 1876 Salvation Army in US 1879 Statue of Liberty 1886; Lazarus’s New Colossus 1903 Washington Monument finished

55 Social/Cultural (1875-1900) National Baseball League 1875
Red Cross 1881 Farmer’s Alliance/Grange 1886 Urbanization/Social Gospel Movement Hull House, tenement house Closing of the frontier (Turner, 1893); Oklahoma Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia 1876 Salvation Army in US 1879 Statue of Liberty 1886; Lazarus’s New Colossus 1903 Washington Monument finished 1884 WCTU 1873 Anti-Saloon League Public Libraries open in New York and Boston 1895

56 Literary ( ) REALISM Twain – Tom Sawyer 1875, Life on the Mississippi 1876, Huckleberry Finn 1884 Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor 1881 Henry James – The American, 1877; Portrait of a Lady, 1881; The Bostonians, 1886 Henry Adams – Democracy, 1880 Edward Bellamy Looking Backward 1888 Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives 1890 Mahan The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1890 F.J.Turner The Significance of the Frontier on American History 1893 Stephen Crane The Red Badge of Courage 1895

57 Immigration (1875-1900) New Immigrants Ellis Island 1892
Southern and Eastern Europe Italy; the Balkans; Russia Catholic, Jewish Cannot easily assimilate The Orient (Angel Island) Work on railroads of West Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Gentlemen’s Agreement 1907 Ellis Island 1892

58 Women ( ) 1869 – Wyoming is first to allow woman suffrage, Colorado 1893; Utah, Idaho 1896 1869 – AWSA and NWSA begin AWSA=Stone; NWSA=Stanton and Anthony 1890 – NAWSA Literacy drives, conventions, parades, state by state campaign, speeches 1890s – Ida B. Wells campaigns against lynching in South (A Red Record 1895) 1896 – National Association of Colored Women – Progressives join call for female suffrage to advance their goals

59 Women ( ) 1900s – women (Gilman) attack traditional marriage; call for economic independence 1903 – National Women’s Trade Union formed 1909 – NAACP involves black women 1912 – Alice Paul returns from England calls for ERA 1912 – Paul starts NWP 1915 – Catt becomes president of NAWSA 1919 – Congress passes the 19th Amendment 1920 – 19th Amendment ratified 1920 – NAWSA becomes League of Women Voters 1925 – first birth control information center opens (Sanger)

60 Blacks ( ) Reconstruction Governments and gains for free blacks Crop lien and sharecropping Civil Rights Act 1875 Civil Rights Cases 1883 Compromise of 1877 ends Reconstruction Tuskegee Opens 1881 Segregation declared legal in Mississippi 1888 (de jure Jim Crow) Increase of lynching ( =187); Wells Atlanta “Compromise” 1895 Grandfather clause – Louisiana 1895 Plessy v. Ferguson 1896

61 American Indians (1875-1900) Sioux Wars Little Big Horn 1876
Geronimo Surrenders 1886 (Apache) Dawes Act 1887 Indian schools=English language 1887 Wounded Knee 1890 (Last Indian War)

62 Protest 1875-1925 Blacks Segregation/lynching/Jim Crow and Plessy
Booker T. Washington and DuBois/Garvey/Harlem Renaissance Populists and Progressives not committed Farmers Organizations Grievances Failure in 1890s followed recovery until after WWI Women Rise of suffragettes (goals and strategies) Obstacles (internal and external) 19th Amendment and impact American Indians Reservation Policy Indian Resistance Dawes Act and assimilation Citizens after World War I (1924)

63 Us Intervention In WW1 Isolationist tradition ends because of:
A.Wilsonian idealism 1.Democracy 2.Moral Diplomacy 3. 14 points include- self determination, freedom on sea, league- world peace B. Violations of American neutrality 1.British 2.German- loss of American lives 3. Unrestricted Submarine-warfare 1917 C.Allied propaganda D. US economic interests 1.Loans 2. Supplies

64 1920-1925 Black History Niagra Movement 1906 Race riots Texas 1906
Race riots Atlanta 1906 Race riots Illinois 1908 NAACP formed 1909 Grandfather Clause adopted in 5 states 1910 KKK reorganized in Ga. 1915 Assoc. for Negro life+ History –1915 Garvey into Universal negro Improvement Assoc. 1916 Race riots St. Louis 1917 “Red Summer” race riots 1918 Nat’l Liberty Cong. Of Colored Americans (asks for anti lynch laws-1918) 70 blacks lynched 1919 ½ million blacks join the Univ. NI Assoc. 1922 Rosewood massacre 1923 KKK up to 5 mil. 1925

65 1900-1925 Labor History United Mine Workers strike 1902
National Women trade Union League started 1903 Int’l Workers of the world 1905 Int’l Ladies Garment Workers Union Strike 1909 Fire at Triangle Shirtwaist Co. (NY) 1911 Lawrence textile Strike 1912 War Labor Policies Board created 1918 (no strike pledge0 AFL strikes Steel Industry 1919 Boston Police Strike 1919 Coal Strike 1919 Palmer Raids- IWW 1919

66 Literature 1900-1925 F. Norris: The Octopus 1901
H James: the Ambassadors 1903 J. London: Call of the Wild 1903 F. Norris: the Pit 1903 Dubois: Souls of Black Folk 1903 H. James: The Golden Bowl 1904 J. London: The Sea Wolf 1904 L Steffens: Shame of the Cities (19??) T. Veblen: Theory of Business Enterprise I Tarbell: History of Standard oil U. Sinclair: The Jungle 1906 T. Dreiser- Jennie Gerhardt 1911 F. Taylor: Principles of Scientific management 1911 H. Croly: Promise of American Life 1909 L. Brandeis” Other People’s Money 1914 H. Adams: The education of H.A. 1918 S. Lewis: main Street 1920 S. Lewis: Babbitt 1922 T.S. Eliot: The Wasteland 1922 T. Dreiser: An American Tragedy 1925 F.S. Fitzgerald: The great Gatsby 1925

67 Cultural- Social 1900-1925 Pan American expo 1901
Wright’s Flight- Kitty Hawk NC 1903 La. Purchase expo 1904 Red Cross chartered 1905 1st “Model T” 1909 Titanic sinks 1912 Daylight savings time adopted 1918 Regular Air Mail began 1918 United Artists established (Chaplin Fairbanks Pickford) 1919 Red scare began 1919 (Palmer Raids) Harlem Renaissance 1920 Scopes Monkey Trial 1925

68 Immigrant history 1906 Cali. segregates Asian kids in Schools 1906 Japanese Immigration disallowed (gentlemen’s agreement) 1913: Cali. bars Jap. Americans from owning property 1917 Wilson vetoes act requiring literacy test for immigrant voters 1920 Congress over-rides veto on Quota legislation 1924 National Origins Act

69 Progressivism I.Goal A. Respond to problems caused by rapid changes in the late 19th century in more reasonable way than agitators of 1890s 1.urbanization 2. Industrialization 3. Corruption at all levels II. Econ Program- end laissez faire 9confident in gov. regulation) A.Anti monopoly B. Tariff reduction- Underwood C. Income tax graduated for fairness (16th0 D. Regulation of Banking- provide elastic credit and currency (fed reserve) E. Child labor and hour of work for women goes down III. Pol. Program= end of corruption by restoring democracy A.Direct election of senators (17th) B. Direct Primaries C. Expose and end city machine politics D. More Accountability to constituents 1. Referendum 2. Recall 3. Initiative

70 Progressivism cont. IV. Social programs: A.Settlement House movement B. Conservation of land and resources C. Temperance (18th) D. Women’s suffrage (19th) V. Strategies A.Increase gov. role in economy (increases regulatory power, change bench, conservation) B. Greater Control of accountability of government to people C. Exposure of greed and corruption by muck-racking journalists. Tarbell- (Standard Oil) Steffens (cities) Sinclair (meat packing) Dreiser (poverty) Norris (railroads) Sandburg (workers plight)

71 1920s cont. New consumer goods cars, radios, refrigerators, vacuums, *advertising dem. of goods. Blacks: jazz Age Harlem Renaissance , they were the first fired after WW1, and KKK was reborn, Garveys Black Pride- (blacks back to Africa) Red Scare- Sacco and Vanzetti Isolationism : reject role in WW1 league, want to protect America, insist on debt payment (Dawes Plan) Washington naval Conf. – disarm Kellogg Briand- no war Immigration Act- nat’l Origins Commercial Entertainment- sports, Hollywood

72 1930s 20th and 22st amendments 1929 crash> depression
Hoover- Moratorium debt, volunteerism- too little too late FDR New deal: 3Rs 1st (1933) “Bank Holiday” = AAA, PWA/CCC, NIRA, TVA Fireside chats 2nd (1935) Court Schemes: WPA, Wagner (CIO forms), Soc. Security Blacks: first fired after WW1. Harlem Riot> FEPC 1941 Isolationism continues- preoccupied with debt/ problems at home Reciprocal trade Agreement- Free Trade 1936 – Sit ins at Flint GM plant = creation of the UAW under Reuther

73 1930s cont. Nye Committee/ Neutrality legislation, embargo (1935) cash carry (1937) Appeasement (tow. Agg.) Preparedness: *^$def. 1938*^ def. After Blitz= Nat’l Defense Adv. Comm. *1940 Campaign limits FDR’s ability to help Br. Until Wilkie approves 1.Destroyer Deal 2. Selective Service Act*Lend lease has public support 1/ ’41 Atlantic Charter in 8/ ’41 (after Ger. USSR) Pearl Harbor 1941 Indian reorg. Act Big band Era:Swing

74 1940s Democrats in control in WH WW2 *Supplies *Troops
Pearl harbor- Midway- “Island hopping” Hiroshima, Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima N. African Italy D day, 6/6/44 Bulge V-E, V-J

75 1940s cont Conferences: Casa Blanca- uncond., Teheran- China, Yalta, Potsdam Nuremberg Trials Iron Curtain Increased Korean War Berlin Blockade During above 3; 1946, TD, M plan, Containment Policy, NATO increase 1949, arms race increases in 1949

76 1940s cont. Support for freedom in Vietnam, Indochina,( Ho Chi Minh= Communist nationalist Fall of Chiang Kai-shek in China to Mao’s red China Israel created (U.N) America accepts global role(short of war) See decrease in League/ App. As mistakes Hear/see Soviet threat Understand need for global econ. Need for raw materials and markets to keep the US economy prosperous.

77 1950s Korean War Alger Hiss/Rosenbergs
McCarthyism/2nd Red Scare/decline of Army hearings Eisenhower’s Dynamic Conservatism/Corporate Commonwealth (cooperation between interest groups)/not friendly towards strikes AFL-CIO merge 1955 Interstate Highway Act=Flight to suburbs (complacent, conformist, consumerism – tvs and cars)

78 1950s Massive Retaliation and the Domino Theory
No rescue at Dienbienphu; support for Diem after Geneva Accords Eisenhower Doctrine Suez Canal Crisis U-2 Spy plane (1960) Sputnik 1957 Brown Decision Montgomery Bus Boycott – rise of SCLC Little Rock Crisis – 1957 Civil Rights Act 1957

79 1950s Beat Generation – Kerouac and Ginsberg Elvis

80 1960s Flexible response/détente Bay of Pigs
Cuban Missile Crisis/Nuclear Test Ban 2nd Berlin Crisis=Wall Increase in money to Diem; Diem Falls; Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; Operation Rolling Thunder=increase of ground troops; Tet Offensive; Vietnamization Commission on Status of Women, 1961 New Frontier Peace Corps

81 1960s Alliance for Progress
Great Society=War on Poverty (Education-VISTA; Employment; Medicare; Head Start) Civil Rights Act 1964, 1968; Voting Rights Act 1965; 24th Amendment 1964; Affirmative Action (1965-blacks; 1967-women) Sit-in movement/SNCC Freedom Rides Freedom/marches: Birmingham 1963; DC 1963; Selma 1965 Voter registration drives; Freedom Summer (1964)

82 1960s Assassinations: JFK, 1963; Maclom X 1965; Martin Luther King, Jr. 1968; RFK 1968 Black Panthers (Carmichael, Newton, Seale, Brown) Race Riots Chicago DNC United Farm Workers/Chavez-1962 Feminine Mystique – Friedan 1963 NOW 1963; Libbers and bra-burners; ERA reintroduced in 1970

83 1960s Anti-war movement – New Left (SDS); Counterculture
Beatles, Dylan, etc./Woodstock Immigration and Naturalization Act 1965 Land on Moon 1969 Détente/SALT I talks begin Nixon and New Federalism (revenue sharing) 6 day war in Middle East 1967

84 1970s EPA established 1970 SALT I talks 1970
My Lai Massacre/Cambodia Invasion Kent State Massacre broadens antiwar movement American troop withdrawal March 1973 South Vietnam falls 1975 Election of 1972 – Nixon v. McGovern “silent majority” Watergate China Visit 1972

85 1970s Roe v. Wade 1973 SALT I – 1972 OPEC Embargo/energy crisis 1973
Nixon Resigns 1974 – Ford pardons War Powers Act 1973 1976 Election – Carter (non-Washington man) Creates cabinet Departments of Education and Health and Human Services Human rights foreign policy Camp David Accords

86 1970s Iranian Hostage Crisis
SALT II 1979 (USSR invades Afghanistan/Olympics) Bakke v. University of California 1978

87 1980s Election of 1980/Reagan Revolution “Are you better off than you were four years ago” (used in ’84 too) California governor – national pride End of hostage crisis (32 minutes into presidency)

88 1980s Assassination attempt March 30
“Reaganomics/tax cuts/deregulation/rollback of liberalism of 1960s and 70s/maintains core New Deal safeguards Milton Friedman Free to Choose/Supply-side Reformed SS solvent for later years results in 16 million new jobs and reduced inflation

89 1980s Air traffic controllers strike 1981 (11,359)
increased deficit – military spending; outspend Soviets/”Evil Empire”/SDI “Star Wars” War on Drugs A Nation at Risk 1st female to Supreme Court (Rehnquist and Scalia too)

90 1980s Tear down this wall” 1989 Reagan Doctrine – support freedom fighters in Afghanistan/Nicaragua/El Salvador Iran-Contra Scandal Election of 1988 – George W. Bush “no new taxes”

91 1990s Manuel Noriega/Panama Desert Storm/Desert Shield
Collapse of USSR 1991 START I Begins NAFTA talks Election of 1992 – Clinton 1st Baby Boomer president

92 1990s Clinton years see economic expansion FMLA 1993
“don’t ask don’t tell” – homosexuals allowed in military NAFTA 1993 Brady Bill – 5-day waiting period for handguns Earned Income Tax Credit Healthcare reform (nationalized) fails “Contract with America” 1994 Increased minimum wage Defense of Marriage Act

93 2000s Bush v. Gore 2000 September 11 War on Terror/Afghanistan/Iraq
No Child Left Behind

94 Cultural 1920-1970 Mass entertainment 1920s Collegiate sports growth
Film: Chaplin, Bow, Valentino Sports:boxing: Dempsey, baseball: Ruth Lindbergh’s flight 1927 Gershwin- composer (popular)

95 Cultural 1920-1970 cont. Artists: O’keefe, Cassatt, Hopper, 1930’s
Lind. Baby kidnapped 1932 Chicago world fair 1933 Film Stars of the 1930s: Bogart, Temple Sports Stars of 1930s: Joe Lewis, Lou Gehrig 1937: A. Earheart’s last flight

96 Cultural 1920-1970 cont. 1937: Golden Gate bridge
1938: H. Hughes world in record time 1939:Gone With the Wind, and the Wizard of Oz Film and music stars of the 1940s; Nat King Cole, Duke Ellington, Joe DiMaggio, Ty Cobb 1941: New York worlds fair 1943 Casablanca 1943: Penicillin introduced 1943: Jitterbug, “bebop”, zoot suit 1943: William Lloyd Wright famous architect Stars of the 1950s: M. Monroe, Sugar Ray Leonard, Rocky Marciano, Arnold Palmer, Elvis

97 Cultural cont. 1950: US (6% of world’s population) Owns 60% of all cars, 58% phones, 45% radios 1951: Color TV introduced 1954: Polio Vaccine 1957: Beatnik movement (Kerouac) starts in California and spreads 1960s heroes: Vince Lombardi, J. Nicklaus, Mickey Mantle, The Beatles, Cassius Clay, Billie J. King, B. Streisand, K. Hepburn 1960: 85m TV sets 1961: John Birch Society(reactionary) increasingly active

98 Cultural cont. 1963: Andy Warhol (NY Guggenheim museum0 and pop art 1964: Hoffa found guilty ( for tampering, fraud, conspiracy) – disappears in 1975 1966: Mini skirts, “twiggy” twist 1969: Campus unrest spreads

99 Economic Roaring Twenties – increase of commercial entertainment advertising and credit; new technology radio, appliances, cars 1921: Melon as Secretary of Treasury – tax cuts; high tariffs; laissez-faire; deregulation 1922: stock market boom October 29, 1929 – Black Tuesday 1925: McNary-Haugen farm relief defeated 1931: Moratorium on debt payment 1932: Bonus March; Hoover moves left (RFC, “too little too late”; FDR campaigns on the 3 R’s)

100 Economic 1920-1970 1933: First New Deal (100 days)
Bank Holiday (relief);Emergency Banking Act (relief) CCC (relief), NIRA (recovery), AAA (recovery), FDIC (reform), TVA (Reform), FERA (relief; “priming the pump”), HOLC (relief); SEC (reform) 1934: increase of strikes 1935: critics from R and L 1935: 2nd New Deal moves Left: WPA (relief), REA (reform), NLRA (Wagner) (reform), and SS (reform) 1936: AAA and NIRA unconstitutional 1937: loses court packing but Court moves left; 1938: Fair Labor Standards Act; 2nd AAA

101 Economic Winter 37/38 recession (attempted to balance budget) ND d/n end Depression or unemployment, transform capitalism except labor; end poverty or redistribute wealth; d/n address racial or female inequality (ex.FEPC) Importance: (1) new institutions that expand role of government=minimum assistance to poor and unemployed; protect rights of Labor; stabilize the banking system; building low-income housing; regulate financial markets; subsidizing agricultural production; (2) new political coalition for Democrats (3) New Deal liberalism inspires and shapes Great Society

102 Economic : US manufacturing ½ of world’s manufactured goods; supplies 25% of British military needs : demobilization 1940s-50s: population shift to sunbelt 1948: Fair Deal – expansion of social welfare/Keynesian Economics 1953: Government lifts all wage controls 1953: Eisenhower's Dynamic Conservatism – stop momentum of New Deal 1959: Ike invokes Taft-Hartley to halt steel strike

103 Economic 1961: New Frontier blocked by conservative coalition; NASA; increased minimum wage 1963: LBJ’s Great Society; War on Poverty increases deficits 1969: Nixon’s New Federalism – 30billion back to states (decline of economy, unemployment, inflation, GNP, trade deficits) raises taxes and interest rates; does not work

104 Political 1920-1970 1920s Republican domination 1932 – FDR elected
1933 – 20th and 21st Amendments 1935 – Long assassinated 1936, 40 – FDR reelected 1940 – Smith Act 1941 – OPA WPB established 1944 – FDR reelected 1950 – McCarran Act 1951 – 22nd and 23rd Amendments

105 Political 1920-1970 1952, 1956 – IKE (re)elected 1960 – JFK 1963 – LBJ
1963 – Gideon v. Wainwright 1964 – LBJ reelected (Goldwater); Warren Report; 24th Amendment; Tonkin Resolution 1964 – Escobedo v. Illinois 1966 – Miranda v. Arizona 1962 – environmental movement gains momentum (Silent Spring)

106 Political 1920-1970 1967 – 25th Amendment
1968 – Nixon elected (RFK; riots at Chicago)

107 Reconstruction Traditional historiography = sordid
Modern historiography = unsuccessful but laudable Began during CW as how to reunite 1863: Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan 1864: Wade-Davis pocket vetoed April 1865 – Congress out of session; Johnson issued plan Presidential Reconstruction ( ) (Johnson) Black Codes infuriate N. Republicans

108 Reconstruction December 1865 – Congress reconvenes
Radical Republicans Sumner and Stevens call for abrogation of Johnson governments Call for new governments based on equality before law and manhood suffrage Moderates try working with Johnson to modify Refused to seat congressmen and Senators elected from S. in November 1865 elections Early 1866 Johnson vetoes Freedman’s Bureau and Civil Rights Bill (overridden) 1866 – Congress approves 14th Amendment (1868)

109 Reconstruction 1866 midterms repudiate Johnson’s policies; S. refuses 14th Amendment Congress decided to take over 1867: Pass Reconstruction Act; began Radical Reconstruction (lasts to 1877) By 1870 all states readmitted and controlled by Republican Party Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Articulate black political leadership emerges in South (16 in Congress, 600 in state legislatures, hundreds in local offices)

110 Reconstruction Successes of Radical Reconstruction governments:
First state-funded public school system in S. Equalized taxation Outlawed discrimination in public transportation and accommodations Economic development Opposition to Reconstruction (KKK) Johnson impeached (1868) 1868 – Grant elected; Congress approves 15th; destroys Klan in 1871; reelected in 1872

111 Reconstruction Reconstruction wanes; Dems never support/corruption/Republicans b/c more conservative ? use of federal power Panic of 1873 = economic concern ahead Dems win control of House in 1874 Violence erupts in South in mid-1870s; no intervention By 1876 all S “redemmed” ex. SC, FL, and LA Compromise of 1876 and collapse of Reconstruction S. falls under reactionary leadership – Jim Crow emerges Stronger federal government indifferent as S. effectively nullified 14th and 15th Amendments – not rectified until 1960s

112 Social/Economic Impacts - Reconstruction
Emergence of “modern America” N and W see transcontinental RR; modern steel industry; settlement of trans-Mississippi West; final defeat of American Indians; expansion of mining Industrialization wipes out small farmers and artisans; wage earner emerges By 1877 industrial production 75% greater than 1865 – even with panic Little economic development in S. Blacks solidify family ties – locate loved ones; black churches Segregation; limited economic development for freed blacks

113 Post WWII Economic Trends
Post-war decade = unprecedented & sustained growth Citizens and government – massive spending Rising consumerism and credit Government spurred economy out of necessity during war; continued after

114 Post WWII Economic Trends
– GNP doubles Inflation under 2% throughout 50s Defense spending most important stimulant US monopoly over international trade Technology sector increases 35% between 1945 and 55 home ownership grew 50% Savings less than 5% of income; consumerism and credit Middle class 5.7m in 1947 to 12m by 1960

115 Causes of the Depression
Watered stock (16 times earnings); careful investors sell stock back to take profits October 29, 1929=Black Tuesday 16.5 million shares traded; market fell 40 points=decline until 1933 Buying on the margin (borrowed 90% with stock as collateral; when prices fell 10% lender sold stock = depressed prices) Depressed farm economy New construction declined Auto sales lagged Underconsumption Money hoarding reduced demand; workers laid off; reduced purchasing power; further decrease in demand; etc. Fordney-McCumber and Hawley-Smoot led to less exports, further hurting the economy

116 Latin-American/US Foreign Policy
1823 – Monroe Doctrine 1840s – Manifest Destiny/Mexican War 1850 – Clayton-Bulwer 1880s – increased investment 1898 – Spanish-American War 1901 – Hay-Pauncefote aborgates Clayton 1903 – Hay-Buneau-Varilla – Canal built 1890s-1920 – US Marines in Latin America 1920s – isolation 1933 – Good Neighbor Policy 1950s-1990s – Cold War intervention (Cuba, etc.) 1961 – Alliance for Progress

117 Eras of Expanded Democracy
Jeffersonian Era ( ) simplicity Jacksonian Era (1820s-1840) UWMS/reform Age of Lincoln/Civil War/Reconstruction ( ) Emancipation, Citizenship UMS Progressive Era ( ) DES; 3Rs; Reg. of BB; UAS Age of FDR ( ) ND; FEPC; communists? JFK/LBJ ( ) CR/Reconstruction Realized Reagan ( ) simplicity

118 Good luck on your test! “Energy and persistence conquer all things.”
Benjamin Franklin Tomorrow all of your hard work will pay off!!! -Annie

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