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Classification. TAXONOMY Branch of biology that names & groups organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history Branch of biology.

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Presentation on theme: "Classification. TAXONOMY Branch of biology that names & groups organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history Branch of biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification

2 TAXONOMY Branch of biology that names & groups organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history Branch of biology that names & groups organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history

3 Aristotle ( BC) Made the first recorded attempt at classification over 2000 years ago. Made the first recorded attempt at classification over 2000 years ago. Grouped all living things into two categories: Grouped all living things into two categories: –Animals –Plants What are some problems with this system?

4 LINNAEUS Developed a system to fix the problems with Aristotles method Developed a system to fix the problems with Aristotles method To classify organisms, their PHYLOGENY, or evolutionary history, should be considered. To classify organisms, their PHYLOGENY, or evolutionary history, should be considered. 7 levels of classification 7 levels of classification

5 Phylogenetic Tree

6 Linnaeus's seven levels of classification arefrom largestsmallest Linnaeus's seven levels of classification arefrom largestsmallest kingdom kingdom phylum phylum class class order order family family genus genus species species –Each level is called a taxon, or taxonomic category.

7 Black bear Giant panda Grizzly bear Red fox Sea star Abert squirrel Coral snake The kingdom is the largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories. The kingdom is the largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories.

8 Black bear Giant panda Grizzly bear Red fox Abert squirrel Coral snake phylum - the subsets of kingdom. phylum - the subsets of kingdom.

9 Abert squirrel Black bear Giant panda Grizzly bear Red fox class, the subsets of phylum. class, the subsets of phylum.

10 Red fox Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda An order is a broad category composed of the subsets of class. An order is a broad category composed of the subsets of class.

11 Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda family, the subsets of order. family, the subsets of order.

12 Species and genus are the two smallest categories. Species and genus are the two smallest categories. Genus is each subset within a family Genus is each subset within a family Species is each subset within a genus Species is each subset within a genus Grizzly bear Black bear

13 Red fox Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Sea star Coral snake Abert squirrel

14

15 *King Philip Came Over From Great Spain*

16 The classification for humans: Kingdom-Animalia Kingdom-Animalia Phylum-Chordata (subphylum vertebrata) Phylum-Chordata (subphylum vertebrata) Class-Mammalia Class-Mammalia Order-Primate Order-Primate Family-Hominidae Family-Hominidae

17 Genus-Homo Genus-Homo Species-sapiens Species-sapiens Why are Homo & sapiens written in italics????? Why are Homo & sapiens written in italics?????

18 BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE Linnaeus also developed a 2 name (SPECIES NAME) system of naming organisms. Linnaeus also developed a 2 name (SPECIES NAME) system of naming organisms. –The species name has 2 parts. The 1 st word is the GENUS & the 2 nd is the SPECIES. –The 1 st letter of the genus name is always capitalized. The species name is all lower-case letters. –Scientific names should be written in italics or underlined. –Homo sapiens (or Homo sapiens) is the scientific name for humans.

19 Practice… Write the following scientific names correctly: Write the following scientific names correctly: –BISON BISON (a buffalo) –PANTHERA LEO (a lion) –CARETTA CARETTA (a loggerhead sea turtle)

20 Check yourself… Bison bison or Bison bison Bison bison or Bison bison Panthera leo or Panthera leo Panthera leo or Panthera leo Caretta caretta or Caretta Caretta Caretta caretta or Caretta Caretta *Please do not try to write in italics on your quiz/test. It is too difficult for me to tell that you meant it to be that way. Underline instead.*

21 The Six-Kingdom System of Classification includes: Archaebacteria Archaebacteria Eubacteria Eubacteria Protista Protista Fungi Fungi Plantae Plantae Animalia Animalia

22 The Six Kingdom System 1. ARCHAEBACTERIA –ancient bacteria –Prokaryotic –Unicellular –Live in hostile environments –Auto- and heterotrophic –Reproduce by binary fission –Can have a cell wall containing peptidoglycan –Some have flagella

23 2. EUBACTERIA true bacteriatrue bacteria Prokaryotic Prokaryotic Unicellular Unicellular Common today Common today Cause disease/decay Cause disease/decay Found almost everywhere Found almost everywhere Auto- & heterotrophic Auto- & heterotrophic Reproduce by binary fission Reproduce by binary fission Can have cell walls with peptidoglycan Can have cell walls with peptidoglycan Can have flagella Can have flagella

24 *The archaebacteria and eubacteria used to be grouped together as MONERANS.

25 The Three-Domain System The domain is a more inclusive category than any otherlarger than a kingdom. The domain is a more inclusive category than any otherlarger than a kingdom. –The three domains are: Eukarya, which is composed of protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Eukarya, which is composed of protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Bacteria, which corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria. Bacteria, which corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria. Archaea, which corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria. Archaea, which corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria.

26 3. PROTISTA Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Uni- & multicellular Uni- & multicellular Auto- & heterotrophic Auto- & heterotrophic junk drawer junk drawer Some move, some dont Some move, some dont Can have cell walls with cellulose Can have cell walls with cellulose Examples-euglena, amoebas, giant kelp Examples-euglena, amoebas, giant kelp

27 4. FUNGI Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Uni- & multicellular Uni- & multicellular Heterotrophic…NO FUNGI DO NOT MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD!!!!!!!! Heterotrophic…NO FUNGI DO NOT MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD!!!!!!!! Dont move Dont move Cell walls with chitin Cell walls with chitin Examples-yeast, mushrooms, molds Examples-yeast, mushrooms, molds

28 5. PLANTAE Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Multicellular Multicellular Autotrophic Autotrophic Dont move Dont move Cell walls have cellulose Cell walls have cellulose

29 6. ANIMALIA Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Multicellular Multicellular Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Some can move, but not all Some can move, but not all No cell walls No cell walls

30 Use this chart for the basics…


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