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Classification of Living Things

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Presentation on theme: "Classification of Living Things"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of Living Things

2 Take the pieces and group them into the following categories:
Cell Type (prokaryote/eukaryote) Cell Structure # of Cells Mode of Nutrition (autotroph/heterotroph) Examples

3 Non-Science Example of Classification
The item in this picture is Automobile: Truck, Car, or SUV? Car Made by? Ford Type of Ford car? Mustang -Was made in what year? 2002 -Is it Convertible? No -Color? Silver

4 Classification: Goes from General to Specific
Automobile – Biggest Car Ford Mustang 2002 -Non Convertible -Silver - Specific

5 Classification Classify – to group things together based on similarities Why Classify? To make organisms easier to identify To make organisms easier to compare How do we classify? Compare Traits – features or characteristics of an organisms

6 Little Known Fact: There are over ___1.5 Million_____; and more are discovered each year. What do we classify? Somewhere between 2 and 100 million have yet to be discovered. Classification serves as an organization system for all the existing and new organisms The Science of Classification is called Taxonomy

7 Early Classification – Aristotle 384-322 B.C.
2 Groups: Plants and Animals Plants – Green, Non Mobile Animals – Not Green, Mobile

8 How would you classify this using the Plant/Animal system?
Praying Mantis Green but.. Mobile Aristotle’s Grouping of life not specific enough

9 Tools Used to Classify Organisms
1. Comparative Anatomy Compares Physical Structures, Traits 2. Biochemistry – DNA and RNA 3. Embryology – Developing Embryos 4. Molecular Basis – Cellular Structure 5. Phylogeny Related Organisms with common ancestors, Derived Characters

10 Linnaeus Divisions Still Used in Modern Classification
1. Kingdom – largest group 2. Phylum 3. Class 4. Order 5. Family 6. Genus 7. Species (Most Closely Related)

11 Mnemonic Device – To help remember categories and order
Kingdom - King Phylum - Phillip Class – Came Order – Over Family From Genus Great Species - Spain

12 Taxons Within each category, a particular group is called a Taxon
Many Taxons for each category Ex: Mammalia is the Taxon for the Class category in Humans Ex: Homo is the Taxon for the Genus category in Humans Carnivora is the Taxon for the Order category in Lions

13 Linnaeus Introduced Scientific Naming
Binomial Nomenclature is the 2 word scientific name of an organism Uses Genus and Species Genus is capitalized, not species, all italicized In writing the name, can’t italicize, so underline Homo sapien (Genus and species of Human) Panthera leo (Genus and species of Lion) Used Latin – Felis concolor or Felis concolor

14 Example Classification
Lion 1. Kingdom – Animalia (all Animals) 2. Phylum – Chordata (All vertebrate animals) 3. Class – Mammalia (All Mammals – mammary glands) 4. Order – Carnivora (Meat eaters) 5. Family – Felidae (includes all Cats) 6. Genus – Panthera (Includes all roaring Cats) 7. Species – leo (Lions)

15 From Kingdom to Species

16 Three Domain System Classification

17 Domain Archaea Corresponds to Kingdom Archaebacteria
Unicellular Prokaryotes (No Nucleus) Heterotrophs and Autotroph Cells Walls without peptidogylcan Live in Extreme environments like those of early Earth ex. Volcanic Hot Springs…..some even live in your gut

18 Fungi Coral – It can move

19 Fungi - Mushrooms All in the same domain as us!

20 3 Domains contain 6 Kingdoms

21 Which is the most primitive?

22 Three Domain System Bacteria – Common Bacteria
Archaea – Ancient Bacteria Eukarya – Includes everything else, Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals

23 Just another example of changes in science
5 Kingdoms turns into 6 Monera is now Eubacteria and Archaeabacteria Just another example of changes in science

24 Domain Bacteria Corresponds to Eubacteria Kingdom Unicellular Prokaryotic (No Nucleus) Ecologically Diverse – live everywhere! Cell Walls contain substance called Peptidoglycan – special protein and sugar Autotroph and Heterotrophs Target of many Antibiotics ex. Strep Throat and Food Poisoning Not all bad….used to turn grapes into wine Ex. Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae

25 Domain Archaeabacteria
Unicellular Prokaryotes (No Nucleus) Heterotrophs and Autotroph Cells Walls without peptidogylcan Live in Extreme environments like those of early Earth ex. Volcanic Hot Springs….. some even live in your gut

26 Summary of Bacteria All Unicellular Prokaryotes (No Nucleus)
Heterotrophs or Autotrophs What is the big difference? Cell Wall – Does it have Peptidoglycan? Archaebacteria Bacteria – With Peptidoglycan Archaea – Without Peptidoglycan

27 Domain Eukarya Most visible life Humans are in Domain Eukarya
Contains Multiple Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Eukaryotic – Has a nucleus Single or multi-cellular Most visible life Humans are in Domain Eukarya Diatom

28 Kingdom Protista Domain Eukarya Eukaryotic Majority are unicellular,
but some are colonial or multicellular. Heterotrophs and autotrophs May or may not have a cell wall Extreme diversity! Can be plant like or animal like. Examples: Algae, Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Volvox, Slime Mold, giant kelp

29 Kingdom Fungi Domain Eukarya Eukaryotic; cell walls of chitin.
Majority multicellular; few unicellular. Heterotrophs; feed on dead or decaying organic matter. (_Decomposer_) Examples: Mushrooms, yeast, bread mold. Bread Mold

30 Kingdom Plantae Domain Eukarya Eukaryotic, multicellular,
cell walls of cellulose. Autotrophs; photosynthesis  chloroplast. Examples: Mosses, ferns, flowering plants, cacti.

31 Kingdom Animalia Domain Eukarya Eukaryotic, multicellular,
no cell walls. Heterotrophs Examples: Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals, reptiles. Extreme diversity is found in this kingdom


33 6 Kingdom System Eubacteria Archaeabacteria Protista Fungi Plantae

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